Growing concern about neurodegenerative diseases is becoming a global issue. It is estimated
that not only will their prevalence increase but also morbidity and health burden will be concerning. Scientists,
researchers and clinicians share the responsibility of raising the awareness and knowledge about
the restricting and handicapping health restrains related to these diseases.
Multiple Sclerosis (MS), as one of the prevalent autoimmune diseases, is characterized by abnormal
regulation of the immune system that periodically attacks parts of the nervous system; brain and spinal
cord. Symptoms and impairments include weakness, numbness, visual problems, tingling pain that are
quietly variable among patients.
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is another neurodegenerative disease that is characterized by the
degeneration of motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord. Unlike MS, symptoms begin with muscle
weakness and progress to affect speech, swallowing and finally breathing. Despite the major differences
between MS and ALS, misdiagnosis is still influencing disease prognosis and patient’s quality of life.
Diagnosis depends on obtaining a careful history and neurological examination as well as the use of
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), which are considered challenging and depend on the current disease
status in individuals.
Fortunately, a myriad of treatments is available now for MS. Most of the cases are steroid responsive.
Disease modifying therapy is amongst the most important set of treatments.
In ALS, few medications that slow down disease progression are present. The aim of this paper is to
summarize what has been globally known and practiced about MS and ALS, as they are currently classified
as important growing key players among autoimmune diseases. In terms of treatments, it is concluded
that special efforts and input should be directed towards repurposing of older drugs and on stem
cells trials. As for ALS, it is highlighted that supportive measurements and supplementary treatments
remain essentially needed for ALS patients and their families. On the other hand, it is noteworthy to
clarify that the patient-doctor communication is relatively a cornerstone in selecting the best treatment
for each MS patient.