Sedatives, Hypnotics and Anxiolytics
Pp. 207-248 (42)
The major objective of this chapter is to concisely explain and equip
pharmacy students with the chemical and pharmacological knowledge of traditional/
conventional and newer sedative-hypnotics and anxiolytics, that is, barbiturates,
benzodiazepines and non-benzodiazepine agents. Upon studying this book chapter,
students will be able to:
• Categorize Chemically/Pharmacologically sedative-hypnotics and anxiolytics.
• Explain the mechanisms by which barbiturates, benzodiazepines, and nonbenzodiazepine
sedative-hypnotics and anxiolytics exert their pharmacological effects.
• Summarize the benzodiazepine and barbiturate structure-activity relationships (SAR).
• Describe the key pharmacokinetic (ADMET) characteristics of individual drug
Anxiolytics, Barbiturates, Benzodiazepines, GABA receptor, GABAA
receptor agonists, Hypnotics, Inverse agonists and antagonists, Orexins, Partial
agonists, Ramelteon, Sedatives, Structure-activity relationships, Z-drugs.
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Feik School of Pharmacy, University of the Incarnate Word, San Antonio, TX, USA.