Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a fatal disease that ultimately results in
kidney failure. The primary threat is the aetiology of CKD. Over the years, researchers have proposed
various techniques and methods to detect and diagnose the disease. The conventional
method of detecting CKD is the determination of the estimated glomerular filtration rate by measuring
creatinine levels in blood or urine. Conventional methods for the detection and classification of
CKD are tedious; therefore, several researchers have suggested various alternative methods. Recently,
the research community has shown keen interest in developing methods for the early detection
of this disease using imaging modalities such as ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, and
Discussion: The study aimed to conduct a systematic review of various existing techniques for the
detection and classification of different stages of CKD using 2D ultrasound imaging of the kidney.
The review was confined to 2D ultrasound images alone, considering the feasibility of implementation
even in underdeveloped countries because 2D ultrasound scans are more cost effective than
other modalities. The techniques and experimentation in each work were thoroughly studied and
discussed in this review.
Conclusion: This review displayed the cutting-age research, challenges, and possibilities of further
research and development in the detection and classification of CKD.