Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/ AIDS is one of principal concern contributing to the global
burden and the accompanying deleterious outcomes could not be left unattended. Despite significant advances and innovative researches being conducted throughout the globe in order to improve the therapeutic profile of conventionally available
antiretroviral (ARV) drugs in eradication of HIV virus reservoirs, its penetration across the blood brain barrier (BBB) is still
a formidable mission. This makes central nervous system a dominant and vulnerable site for the virus propagation which ultimately affects the therapeutic potential of the drug administered. Therefore there is an upsurge in the prerequisite of novel
technologies to come into play, paving way for nanotechnology.
Methods: This review primarily provides a comprehensive outline and emphasizes on the nanotechnological techniques employed for the delivery of ARV drugs and their stupendous advantages in overcoming the hurdles associated with the same.
Results: The nanotechnological approach bear the potential of site specific delivery across the BBB via targeting explicit
transport processes and provide a sustained release mechanism. Furthermore different routes of administration explored
have also yielded beneficial outcomes for the delivery of ARV drugs.
Conclusion: The futuristic holistic nanotechnology methods, however should focus of increasing the drug trafficking and
permeability across the BBB to ameliorate the therapeutic effect of ARV drugs. Additionally the domain warrants clinical
studies to be undertaken to make the technique commercially viable and a success for upheaval of the treatment strategy.