Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS is one of the principal concerns contributing
to the global burden and the accompanying deleterious outcomes could not be left unattended. Despite
significant advances and innovative research being conducted throughout the globe in order to improve the therapeutic
profile of conventionally available antiretroviral (ARV) drugs in the eradication of HIV virus reservoirs,
its penetration across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is still a formidable mission. This makes the central
nervous system a dominant and vulnerable site for virus propagation, which ultimately affects the therapeutic
potential of the drug administered. Therefore there is an upsurge in the prerequisite of novel technologies to
come into play, paving the way for nanotechnology.
Methods: This review primarily provides a comprehensive outline and emphasizes on the nanotechnological
techniques employed for the delivery of ARV drugs and their stupendous advantages in overcoming the hurdles
associated with the same.
Results: The nanotechnological approach bears the potential of site-specific delivery across the BBB via targeting
explicit transport processes and provides a sustained release mechanism. Furthermore, different routes of administration
explored have also yielded beneficial outcomes for the delivery of ARV drugs.
Conclusion: The futuristic holistic nanotechnology methods, however, should focus on increasing drug trafficking
and permeability across the BBB to ameliorate the therapeutic effect of ARV drugs. Additionally, the domain
warrants clinical studies to be undertaken to make the technology commercially viable and a success to
deal with the problems of the treatment strategy.