Nanomedicine and Early Cancer Diagnosis: Molecular Imaging using Fluorescence Nanoparticles

Author(s): Ke-Tao Jin, Jia-Yu Yao, Xiao-Jiang Ying, Yan Lin, Yun-Fang Chen*

Journal Name: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry

Volume 20 , Issue 30 , 2020


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Abstract:

Incorporating nanotechnology into fluorescent imaging and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has shown promising potential for accurate diagnosis of cancer at an earlier stage than the conventional imaging modalities. Molecular imaging (MI) aims to quantitatively characterize, visualize, and measure the biological processes or living cells at molecular and genetic levels. MI modalities have been exploited in different applications including noninvasive determination and visualization of diseased tissues, cell trafficking visualization, early detection, treatment response monitoring, and in vivo visualization of living cells. High-affinity molecular probe and imaging modality to detect the probe are the two main requirements of MI. Recent advances in nanotechnology and allied modalities have facilitated the use of nanoparticles (NPs) as MI probes. Within the extensive group of NPs, fluorescent NPs play a prominent role in optical molecular imaging. The fluorescent NPs used in molecular and cellular imaging can be categorized into three main groups including quantum dots (QDs), upconversion, and dyedoped NPs. Fluorescent NPs have great potential in targeted theranostics including cancer imaging, immunoassay- based cells, proteins and bacteria detections, imaging-guided surgery, and therapy. Fluorescent NPs have shown promising potentials for drug and gene delivery, detection of the chromosomal abnormalities, labeling of DNA, and visualizing DNA replication dynamics. Multifunctional NPs have been successfully used in a single theranostic modality integrating diagnosis and therapy. The unique characteristics of multifunctional NPs make them potential theranostic agents that can be utilized concurrently for diagnosis and therapy. This review provides the state of the art of the applications of nanotechnologies in early cancer diagnosis focusing on fluorescent NPs, their synthesis methods, and perspectives in clinical theranostics.

Keywords: Molecular imaging, Theranostics, Nanotechnology, Fluorescent nanoparticles, Cancer, Early diagnosis.

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VOLUME: 20
ISSUE: 30
Year: 2020
Page: [2737 - 2761]
Pages: 25
DOI: 10.2174/1568026620666200922112640
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