Background: Novel coronavirus (2019-nCov) imposed deadly health calamity with unexpected
disastrous situation alarming the globe for urgent treatment regimes. World Health Organization
(WHO) termed the coronavirus disease as COVID-2019 on February 11, 2020 and announced its outbreak
as pandemic on 11 March 2020. The first infection was noticed in Wuhan, Hubei province, China,
in December 2019, and it is believed that the corona-virus is transmitted to humans through bats as a
reservoir involving human to human transfer. However, the proper intermediary transmission channel is
yet to be unestablished.
Methods: Elderly populations and patients with concomitant symptoms are more at risk as compared to
middle-aged patients as it may progress to pneumonia followed by severe acute respiratory syndrome
(SARS) and multi-organ failure. Morbidity rates estimated in patients are less, i.e., 2-3%, but the dearth
of a specific treatment strategy to prevent coronavirus infection is a major concern.
Results: Currently, anti-viral and anti-malarial drugs are in practice for the management of COVID-19
disease along with plasma therapy in the absence of a potent vaccine. Besides, home isolation and social
distancing are the precautionary measures adopted by many countries to minimize the spread of infection.
Various studies have been conducted, and numerous are still going on to establish specific treatment
Conclusion: In this review, we summarized information on the structural components of COVID19 virus
with special emphasis on the virus genome, life cycle, the importance of protease enzyme, the role of
spike proteins in viral replication, validated drug targets, ongoing effective treatments for COVID-19
management and the latest research on drug design to develop anti-CoV drugs.