The role of amino acids and peptides has found remarkable usage in both living systems and nonliving
materials, which have enabled its utility by virtue of crafting molecular architectures through covalent
bonds and non-covalent interactions. In material chemistry, the role of peptides in Liquid Crystals (LCs) is profound,
especially in the rapid construction of supramolecular hierarchical networks. The importance of LCs for a
variety of societal needs leads to the synthesis of innumerable LCs by conventional mesogenic strategy and nonconventional
molecular design principles. For example, electronic appliances, including flat panel TV displays,
electronic notebooks, digital cameras, domestic devices, use LCs as an integral component for such applications.
In addition, LCs are useful in biological systems, including stem cell research, sensors for bacteria, virus, and
proteins. These accomplishments are possible mostly due to the non-conventional molecular design principles for
crafting LCs using smaller molecular motifs. The usage of amino acids and peptides in LCs facilitates many intrinsic
characteristics, including side-chain diversity, chirality, directionality, reversibility, electro-optical, columnar
axis, stimuli-responsive complex molecular architectures. The next essential criteria for any LCs design
for useful applications are room temperature LC (RT-LC); therefore, the quest for such LCs system remains
highly significant. Evidently, there are around half a million liquid crystalline molecules; only a handful of RTLCs
has been found, as there is no simple, precise strategy or molecular design principles to obtain RT-LC systems.
The smaller molecular motifs of amino acids and linear peptides as a structural part of mesogenic molecules
led to many LC phases with properties, including lyotropic, thermotropic, and its applications in different
realms. Therefore, this review serves as a compilation of Small Peptide-based LCs (SPLCs) exhibiting lyotropic
and thermotropic phases with applications in the recent advancements.
Keywords: Amino acids, phenylalanine, promesogenic, peptides, liquid crystals, polycatenars, non-covalent interactions, lyotropic, thermotropic,
amphotropic, columnar, smectic, bicontinuous, cubic, ionic liquid, gelators, SAXS, optical polarizing microscopic images, DSC.
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