This review focuses on the conventional treatment, signaling pathways and various reasons for drug
resistance with an understanding of novel methods that can lead to effective therapies. Ovarian cancer is
amongst the most common gynecological and lethal cancers in women affecting different age groups (20-60).
The survival rate is limited to 5 years due to diagnosis in subsequent stages with a reoccurrence of tumor and
resistance to chemotherapeutic therapy. The recent clinical trials use the combinatorial treatment of carboplatin
and paclitaxel on ovarian cancer after the cytoreduction of the tumor. Predominantly, patients are responsive
initially to therapy and later develop metastases due to drug resistance. Chemotherapy also leads to drug resistance
causing enormous variations at the cellular level. Multifaceted mechanisms like drug resistance are associated
with a number of genes and signaling pathways that process the proliferation of cells. Reasons for resistance
include epithelial-mesenchyme, DNA repair activation, autophagy, drug efflux, pathway activation, and so
on. Determining the routes on the molecular mechanism that target chemoresistance pathways are necessary for
controlling the treatment and understanding efficient drug targets can open light on improving therapeutic outcomes.
The most common drug used for ovarian cancer is Cisplatin that activates various chemoresistance
pathways, ultimately causing drug resistance. There have been substantial improvements in understanding the
mechanisms of cisplatin resistance or chemo sensitizing cisplatin for effective treatment. Therefore, using therapies
that involve a combination of phytochemical or novel drug delivery system would be a novel treatment for
cancer. Phytochemicals are plant-derived compounds that exhibit anti-cancer, anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory
properties and reduce side effects exerted by chemotherapeutics.