Chemoresistance in Ovarian Cancer: Prospects for New Drugs

Author(s): Shivani Tendulkar*, Suneel Dodamani*

Journal Name: Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
(Formerly Current Medicinal Chemistry - Anti-Cancer Agents)

Volume 21 , Issue 6 , 2021

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Abstract:

This review focuses on the conventional treatment, signaling pathways and various reasons for drug resistance with an understanding of novel methods that can lead to effective therapies. Ovarian cancer is amongst the most common gynecological and lethal cancers in women affecting different age groups (20-60). The survival rate is limited to 5 years due to diagnosis in subsequent stages with a reoccurrence of tumor and resistance to chemotherapeutic therapy. The recent clinical trials use the combinatorial treatment of carboplatin and paclitaxel on ovarian cancer after the cytoreduction of the tumor. Predominantly, patients are responsive initially to therapy and later develop metastases due to drug resistance. Chemotherapy also leads to drug resistance causing enormous variations at the cellular level. Multifaceted mechanisms like drug resistance are associated with a number of genes and signaling pathways that process the proliferation of cells. Reasons for resistance include epithelial-mesenchyme, DNA repair activation, autophagy, drug efflux, pathway activation, and so on. Determining the routes on the molecular mechanism that target chemoresistance pathways are necessary for controlling the treatment and understanding efficient drug targets can open light on improving therapeutic outcomes. The most common drug used for ovarian cancer is Cisplatin that activates various chemoresistance pathways, ultimately causing drug resistance. There have been substantial improvements in understanding the mechanisms of cisplatin resistance or chemo sensitizing cisplatin for effective treatment. Therefore, using therapies that involve a combination of phytochemical or novel drug delivery system would be a novel treatment for cancer. Phytochemicals are plant-derived compounds that exhibit anti-cancer, anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory properties and reduce side effects exerted by chemotherapeutics.

Keywords: Chemoresistance, cisplatin, ovary, phytochemicals, cancer, drug resistance.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 21
ISSUE: 6
Year: 2021
Page: [668 - 678]
Pages: 11
DOI: 10.2174/1871520620666200908104835
Price: $95

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