Spider silks have received extensive attention from scientists and industries around the
world because of their remarkable mechanical properties, which include high tensile strength and
extensibility. It is a leading-edge biomaterial resource, with a wide range of potential applications.
Spider silks are composed of silk proteins, which are usually very large molecules, yet many silk
proteins still remain largely underexplored. While there are numerous reviews on spider silks from
diverse perspectives, here we provide a most up-to-date overview of the spider silk component protein
family in terms of its molecular structure, evolution, hydrophobicity, and biomedical applications.
Given the confusion regarding spidroin naming, we emphasize the need for coherent and consistent
nomenclature for spidroins and provide recommendations for pre-existing spidroin names
that are inconsistent with nomenclature. We then review recent advances in the components, identification,
and structures of spidroin genes. We next discuss the hydrophobicity of spidroins, with
particular attention on the unique aquatic spider silks. Aquatic spider silks are less known but may
inspire innovation in biomaterials. Furthermore, we provide new insights into antimicrobial peptides
from spider silk glands. Finally, we present possibilities for future uses of spider silks.