Spider Silks: An Overview of Their Component Proteins for Hydrophobicity and Biomedical Applications

Author(s): Fan Li, Chao Bian, Daiqin Li*, Qiong Shi*

Journal Name: Protein & Peptide Letters

Volume 28 , Issue 3 , 2021


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Graphical Abstract:


Abstract:

Spider silks have received extensive attention from scientists and industries around the world because of their remarkable mechanical properties, which include high tensile strength and extensibility. It is a leading-edge biomaterial resource, with a wide range of potential applications. Spider silks are composed of silk proteins, which are usually very large molecules, yet many silk proteins still remain largely underexplored. While there are numerous reviews on spider silks from diverse perspectives, here we provide a most up-to-date overview of the spider silk component protein family in terms of its molecular structure, evolution, hydrophobicity, and biomedical applications. Given the confusion regarding spidroin naming, we emphasize the need for coherent and consistent nomenclature for spidroins and provide recommendations for pre-existing spidroin names that are inconsistent with nomenclature. We then review recent advances in the components, identification, and structures of spidroin genes. We next discuss the hydrophobicity of spidroins, with particular attention on the unique aquatic spider silks. Aquatic spider silks are less known but may inspire innovation in biomaterials. Furthermore, we provide new insights into antimicrobial peptides from spider silk glands. Finally, we present possibilities for future uses of spider silks.

Keywords: Spider silk, component protein, nomenclature, hydrophobicity, antimicrobial peptides, biomaterial.

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VOLUME: 28
ISSUE: 3
Year: 2021
Published on: 07 May, 2021
Page: [255 - 269]
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DOI: 10.2174/0929866527666200907104401
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