Perhalopyridines: Synthesis and Synthetic Utility

Perhalopyridines: Synthesis and Synthetic Utility

Halogenated pyridines can be used as interesting starting materials in a wide range of organic synthesis methods. Substituted pyridine compounds are used generally as starting materials in the ...
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Properties of Perhalopyridines

Pp. 1-7 (7)

Reza Ranjbar-Karimi and Alireza Poorfreidoni


The introduction of halogen atoms on the pyridine ring causes significant changes in its properties. Halogens reduced basicity of pyridine ring as well as dipole moment. The presence of dense halogen atoms renders a higher density of perhalopyridines than pyridine. Fluorine atoms cause a low-field shift of pyridine carbons than chlorine and bromine atoms. Perhalopyridines are mainly involved in nucleophilic substitution reactions due to the electron-withdrawing nature of halogens while perfluoropyridines are more active than others.


13C-NMR spectrum, 19F-NMR spectrum, Activating Effect, Addition- Elimination Mechanism, Basicity, Chemical Shifts, Density, Dipole Moment, Intermolecular Forces, IR spectrum, Meisenheimer Intermediate, Nucleophilic Substitution, Pentabromopyridine, Pentachloropyridine, Pentafluoropyridine, Raman Analysis, Shielding Effect, Spectroscopy, Steric Factors, UV-Vis Spectrum.


Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan Islamic Republic of Iran.