Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is the most common form of pulmonary impairment in patients
with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, patients with RA or other arthritic diseases such as
psoriatic arthritis (PsA) or peripheral spondyloarthritis (pSpA) are at a higher risk of developing
several other pulmonary diseases, such as chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD), compared to
patients without arthritis. This review aims at summarizing the current knowledge on the prevalence
of pulmonary diseases in the above-mentioned forms of arthritis, the challenges faced by prevalence
studies in detecting pulmonary diseases in patients with arthritis, as well as possible treatment
options. Dyspnea, cough or other pulmonary symptoms in arthritis patients should prompt gradual
diagnostic procedures considering pulmonary manifestations as a major cluster of differential
diagnosis. However, treatment options often lack solid evidence-based guidelines and referrals to
specialized centers are often necessary.
Keywords: Rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, peripheral spondyloarthritis, pulmonary manifestation, extra-articular manifestation,
interstitial lung disease.
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