Premature ovarian failure (POF) refers to ovarian dysfunction in women under
40 years old. It is characterized by low estrogen, high gonadotropin, amenorrhea, and
infertility, which seriously affect physical and mental health of women. The pathogenic
factors of POF include iatrogenic factors, autoimmune factors, genetic factors, oxidative
stress, infection, thyroid dysfunction, and adrenal diseases. Chemotherapy is a common
cause of POF and is gaining increasing attention. With the development of modern
medicine and advances in understanding cancer, women’s cancer survival rates have
been significantly increased. Currently, the main treatment options for POF are hormone
supplement and in vitro activation (IVA), but there is still no specific treatment for POF.
Stem cells, known as undifferentiated cells of multicellular organisms, exhibit
characteristics of self-renewal, directional differentiation into different cells, and low
immunogenicity. Thus, they have potential in regenerative medicine and provide a
promising direction for POF treatment. In this review, we summarize the latest research
progress of various stem cells in chemotherapy-induced POF models to provide a
theoretical basis for further research and treatment.