Potential Inhibitors of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase (PTP1B) Enzyme: Promising Target for Type-II Diabetes Mellitus

Author(s): Sisir Nandi, Mridula Saxena*

Journal Name: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry

Volume 20 , Issue 29 , 2020


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Graphical Abstract:


Abstract:

Background: There has been growing interest in the development of highly potent and selective protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP1B) inhibitors for the past 2-3 decades. Though most PTPs share a common active site motif, the interest in selective inhibitors, particularly against PTP1B is increasing to discover new chemical entities as antidiabetic agents. In the current paradigm to find potent and selective PTP1B inhibitors, which is currently considered as one of the best validated biological targets for non-insulin-dependent diabetic and obese individuals, resistance to insulin due to decreased sensitivity of the insulin receptor is a pathological factor and is also genetically linked, causing type II diabetes.

Objective: Insulin receptor sensitization is performed by a signal transduction mechanism via a selective protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP1B). After the interaction of insulin with its receptor, autophosphorylation of the intracellular part of the receptor takes place, turning it into an active kinase (sensitization). PTP1B is involved in the desensitization of the receptor by dephosphorylation. PTP1b inhibitors delay the receptor desensitization, prolonging insulin effect and making PTP1B as a drug target for the treatment of diabetes II. Therefore, it has become a major target for the discovery of potent drugs for the treatment of type II diabetes and obesity. An attempt has been made in the present study to discuss the latest design and discovery of protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP1B) inhibitors.

Methods: Many PTP1B inhibitors such as diaminopyrroloquinazoline, triazines, pyrimido triazine derivatives, 2-(benzylamino)-1-phenylethanol, urea, acetamides and piperazinylpropanols, phenylsulphonamides and phenylcarboxamide, benzamido, arylcarboxylic acid derivatives, arylsupfonyl derivatives, thiazoles, isothiozolidiones and thiazolodinones have been discussed, citing the disease mechanisms.

Results: The reader will gain an overview of the structure and biological activity of recently developed PTPs inhibitors.

Conclusion: The co-crystallized ligands and the screened inhibitors could be used as a template for the further design of potent congeners.

Keywords: Type-II diabetes mellitus, Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B enzymes, PTP1B inhibitors, TCPTP, Cellular functions, Cell migration.

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VOLUME: 20
ISSUE: 29
Year: 2020
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DOI: 10.2174/1568026620999200904121432
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