Background: Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) and members of its homologous
protein family mediate transmembrane signal transduction by binding to a specific ligand,
which leads to regulated cell growth, differentiation, proliferation and metastasis. With the development
and application of Genetically Engineered Antibodies (GEAs), Nanobodies (Nbs) constitute a
new research hot spot in many diseases. A Nb is characterized by its low molecular weight, deep
tissue penetration, good solubility and high antigen-binding affinity, the anti-EGFR Nbs are of significance
for the diagnosis and treatment of EGFR-positive tumours.
Objective: This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the information about the
molecular structure of EGFR and its transmembrane signal transduction mechanism, and discuss
the anti-EGFR-Nbs influence on the diagnosis and treatment of solid tumours.
Methods: Data were obtained from PubMed, Embase and Web of Science. All patents are searched
from the following websites: the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO®), the United
States Patent Trademark Office (USPTO®) and Google Patents.
Results: EGFR is a key target for regulating transmembrane signaling. The anti-EGFR-Nbs for targeted
drugs could effectively improve the diagnosis and treatment of solid tumours.
Conclusion: EGFR plays a role in transmembrane signal transduction. The Nbs, especially anti-
EGFR-Nbs, have shown effectiveness in the diagnosis and treatment of solid tumours. How to increase
the affinity of Nb and reduce its immunogenicity remain a great challenge.