Nanotechnology is one of the emerging fields in drug delivery for targeting the drug to
the site of action. The polymeric nanoparticles as drug delivery systems have gained importance
for the last few decades. They offer advantages over liposomes, dendrimers, emulsions etc. Surface
engineering of polymeric nanoparticles is widely utilized to effectively target the cells in various
diseases such as cancer, HIV infection. Surface modified nanoparticles offer various advantages
such as targeted drug delivery, reduction in side effects, dose reduction and improved therapeutic
efficacy. Moreover, they can aid in improving physical and biochemical properties, pharmacokinetic
and pharmacodynamic profiles of the drug. Surface modified polymeric nanoparticles can provide
targeted delivery of drugs into specific cells, especially when targets are intracellularly localized.
This approach of surface modification would be more advantageous for the delivery of various
anticancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-HIV drugs for more effective therapy. This review focuses
on the techniques used for the fabrication of polymeric nanoparticles, the material used for surface
modification and their applications.