Anti-Toxoplasmic Immunoglobulin G Quantitation Correlates with Immunovirological Parameters of HIV-Infected Cameroonians

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Author(s): Aude Christelle Ka’e*, Samuel Martin Sosso, Joseph Fokam, Rachel Kamgaing Simo, Sara Riwom Essama, Alex Durand Nka, Bouba Yagai, Cédric Joël Ninsu Dzukou, Michel Carlos Tommo Tchouaket, Collins Chenwi, Aissatou Abba, Nadine Fainguem, Marie Krystel Nnomo Zam, Junie Flore Yimga, Vittorio Colizzi, Alexis Ndjolo

Journal Name: Current HIV Research

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Background: Toxoplasmosis is still a neglected common opportunistic infection in immunocompromised individuals, who are mainly people living with HIV (PLHIV) in whom reactivation of toxoplasmosis may occur with advanced HIV conditions in resource-limited settings (RLS).

Objective: Our objective was to assess the correlation between anti-Toxoplasmic immunoglobulin G (anti-Toxo IgG) concentration and the immuno-virological status of PLHIV.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2018 among 100 PLHIV aged ≥18 years in Yaounde-Cameroon. For each participant, anti-Toxo IgG, CD4-T lymphocytes, and plasma viral load (PVL) were measured using ELISA, flow cytometry, and real-time PCR respectively.

Results: Overall, 56% were seropositive for anti-Toxo IgG, when 33% were negative and 11% were equivocal. All (n=19) those with PVL>1000 copies/mL were seropositive to anti-Toxo IgG versus 52.85% (37/70) with PVL<1000 copies/mL; p<0.0001. Interestingly, all (n=11) those with severe immunodeficiency (T-CD4<200 cells/µL) were positive to anti-Toxo IgG versus 57.69% (45/78) with T-CD4>200 cells/µL; p<0.0001. Most importantly, PVL and anti-Toxo IgG concentration were positively correlated (r = 0.54; p<0.0001), while T-CD4 and anti-Toxo IgG concentration were negatively correlated (r = - 0.70; p<0.0001). Adjusting age, gender, immune status and virological profile in logistic regression shows that only immune status was independently associated to the serological status of toxoplasmosis (p=0.0004).

Conclusion: In Cameroon, about half of PLHIV might be seropositive to anti-Toxo IgG, with decreasing immunity appearing as risk of toxoplasmosis relapse. Thus, in the context of immunodeficiency, routine quantification of anti-Toxo IgG would alleviate the programmatic burden of this opportunistic infection in RLS with generalized HIV epidemic.

Keywords: HIV, Toxoplasmosis, Immunoglobulin G, viral load, Immunity, Correlation, Cameroon

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(E-pub Ahead of Print)
DOI: 10.2174/1570162X18666200903172523
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