The incidence of nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) pulmonary disease has increased
in recent years. It seems that patients with structural lung diseases treated with inhaled corticosteroids
(ICS) are at risk of pulmonary NTM infection. This systematic review investigated the articles
focused on the association between the use of ICS and pulmonary NTM infection. The current
study assessed four categories, namely the association between the use of ICS therapy and NTM infections,
bacterial factors involved in the incidence of NTM infection in patients undergoing ICS
therapy, the relationship between dosage and long-term use of ICS therapy in the incidence of
NTM infection, and main risk factors of the incidence of NTM infection in patients undergoing
ICS therapy. Based on the obtained results of the present study, there was an association between
the use of ICS therapy and NTM infections. It seems that ICS increases the risk of NTM infection
by 1.8 to 8 times. Accordingly, 40-90% of patients with NTM had a history of ICS usage. Mycobacterium
avium complex was the most common bacterial factor in NTM patients undergoing ICS therapy.
The relationship between a higher dosage of ICS therapy and an increased risk of NTM was
confirmed in the majority of the studies. Age, gender, smoking history, and underlying diseases are
the main risk factors for the incidence of NTM in patients receiving ICS therapy.