Autism spectrum disorder is the term used in the most recent edition of the diagnostic
and statistical manual of neurodevelopmental disorders, which includes conditions such as autism.
Etiological factors such as environmental toxins, food, genes, bacterial infections, and viruses are
the reasons behind autism. In the lack of diagnostic criteria, early studies of the disorder reported
differences in motor and cognitive abilities in persons with autism. Autism neuropathological features
are correlated with different brain areas, such as the cerebral cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus.
Autism is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, neuroinflammatory reactions,
neuroexcitation, and abnormal synapse formation. Pre-clinically, the administration of propionic
acid in the brains of rats by stereotaxic technique exacerbates autistic behavioral and neurochemical
alterations. Prescription drugs to alleviate neurological disorders for autism are risperidone
(Blocks D2 and 5HT2A receptors) and aripiprazole (D2 and 5HT1A partial agonist) approved
by the US-FDA, which comes with limited therapeutic intervention. Findings suggest that malfunctions
of propionic acid-disrupted neuronal mitochondrial coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) and etc-complexes
are the most pathogenic events for autism. As a result, the current review focused on the history
of disease, clinical and pre-clinical drugs under investigation and suggested mediating neuroprotective
intervention in autism with mitochondrial CoQ10 activation. Additionally, a greater understanding
of the mitochondrial signaling pathway is an effort to improve successful treatment not only
for Autism but also for other neurological disorders.