Nanoparticles Based Intranasal Delivery of Drug to Treat Alzheimer’s Disease: A Recent Update

Author(s): Manisha Pandey*, Hira Choudhury*, Rohit Kumar Verma, Viney Chawla, Subrat Kumar Bhattamisra, Bapi Gorain, Maria Abdul Ghafoor Raja, Muhammad Wahab Amjad

Journal Name: CNS & Neurological Disorders - Drug Targets
Formerly Current Drug Targets - CNS & Neurological Disorders

Volume 19 , Issue 9 , 2020


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Graphical Abstract:


Abstract:

Alzheimer Association Report (2019) stated that the 6th primary cause of death in the USA is Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), which leads to behaviour and cognitive impairment. Nearly 5.8 million peoples of all ages in the USA have suffered from this disease, including 5.6 million elderly populations. The statistics of the progression of this disease is similar to the global scenario. Still, the treatment of AD is limited to a few conventional oral drugs, which often fail to deliver an adequate amount of the drug in the brain. The reduction in the therapeutic efficacy of an anti-AD drug is due to poor solubility, existence to the blood-brain barrier and low permeability. In this context, nasal drug delivery emerges as a promising route for the delivery of large and small molecular drugs for the treatment of AD. This promising pathway delivers the drug directly into the brain via an olfactory route, which leads to the low systemic side effect, enhanced bioavailability, and higher therapeutic efficacy. However, few setbacks, such as mucociliary clearance and poor drug mucosal permeation, limit its translation from the laboratory to the clinic. The above stated limitation could be overcome by the adaption of nanoparticle as a drug delivery carrier, which may lead to prolong delivery of drugs with better permeability and high efficacy. This review highlights the latest work on the development of promising Nanoparticles (NPs) via the intranasal route for the treatment of AD. Additionally, the current update in this article will draw the attention of the researcher working on these fields and facing challenges in practical applicability.

Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, nanoparticles, intranasal, permeability, blood-brain barrier, cognitive impairment.

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