Progress of modern dentistry is accelerating at a spectacular speed in the scientific, technological
and clinical areas. Practical examples are the advancement in the digital field, which has guaranteed
an average level of prosthetic practices for all patients, as well as other scientific developments,
including research on stem cell biology. Given their plasticity, defined as the ability to differentiate
into specific cell lineages with a capacity of almost unlimited self-renewal and release of
trophic/immunomodulatory factors, stem cells have gained significant scientific and commercial interest
in the last 15 years. Stem cells that can be isolated from various tissues of the oral cavity have
emerged as attractive sources for bone and dental regeneration, mainly due to their ease of accessibility.
This review will present the current understanding of emerging conceptual and technological issues
of the use of stem cells to treat bone and dental loss defects. In particular, we will focus on the
clinical application of stem cells, either directly isolated from oral sources or in vitro reprogrammed
from somatic cells (induced pluripotent stem cells). Research aimed at further unraveling stem cell
plasticity will allow to identify optimal stem cell sources and characteristics, to develop novel regenerative
tools in dentistry.