Non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) is a leading cause of optic nerverelated
permanent visual impairment among individuals of over 50 years of age after glaucoma. Due to
perplexing disorder regarding its pathogenesis, there is still no widely accepted and established treatment
plan. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are one of the rare stem cell types that therapeutic agents
for immunomodulation and ischemic tissue repair in clinical practice. However, there are certain disadvantages
in using MSCs, such as potential tumorigenicity, need for autologous collection, and short
survival time. Previous evidence suggested that MSC-exosome significantly attenuated post-ischemic
neuronal damage and induced long-term neuroprotection associated with enhanced angiogenesis in
Therefore, we hypothesized that the intravitreal administration of MSC-exosome could be a potentially
effective therapeutic approach for NAION by using a similar mechanism via promoting angiogenesis,
neuro-regeneration, and neurological recovery, suppressing oxidative stress and reducing apoptosis,
and suppressing inflammation and immunity based on its biological structure and function in NAION.
Questions that need to be answered before testing clinically include dose regimen, injection frequency,
the optimal duration of treatment, and duration of medication.