The Role of Bacterial Superantigens in the Immune Response: From Biology to Cancer Treatment

Author(s): Mohammad S. Hashemzadeh*, Behnam E.G. Tapeh, Seyed A. Mirhosseini

Journal Name: Current Cancer Therapy Reviews

Volume 17 , Issue 1 , 2021


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Abstract:

Aims: Encouraging results have been indicated preclinically and in patients using the bacterial superantigen. This review article intends to summarize the role of the superantigens that have been recently used in the treatment of cancer. In addition, the vector systems, including lentiviral vectors, adeno-associated vector systems and retroviral vectors that are increasingly being used in basic and applied research, were discussed. Most importantly, the new CRISPR technique has also been discussed in this literature review.

Discussion: More successful therapies can be achieved by manipulating bacterial vector systems through incorporating genes related to the superantigens and cytokines. The products of SAg and cytokine genes contribute to the strong stimulation of the immune system against tumor cells. They bind to MHC II molecules as well as the V beta regions of TCR and lead to the production of IL2 and other cytokines, the activation of antigen-presenting cells and T lymphocytes. Additionally, superantigens can be used to eradicate tumor cells. Better results in cancer treatment can be achieved by transferring superantigen genes and subsequent strong immune stimulation along with other cancer immunotherapy agents.

Conclusion: Superantigens induce the proliferation of T lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells by binding to MHCII molecules and V beta regions in T cell receptors. Therefore, the presentation of tumor cell antigens is increased. Additionally, the production of important cytokines by T cells and APCs contributes to the stimulation of immune response against tumor cells. The manipulation of bacterial vector systems through incorporating genesrelated to SAgs and other immune response factors is a good strategy for the immune system stimulating and eradicating tumor cells along with other immunotherapy agents.

Keywords: Superantigen, immunotherapy, cancer, T lymphocyte, immune response, lymphocyte.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 17
ISSUE: 1
Year: 2021
Published on: 05 April, 2021
Page: [21 - 34]
Pages: 14
DOI: 10.2174/1573394716666200812150402
Price: $65

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