Aim: To study the pretreatment effect of ethanolic extract of Azolla microphylla (EAM)
on rat liver induced with Isoproterenol (ISO) and to identify the phytochemicals present in EAM using
HPTLC and GC-MS techniques.
Materials and Methods: 42 male Wistar rats were divided into 7 groups. Rats were pre-treated with
EAM (250 and 500 mg/kg bw) orally for 28 days and induced with ISO (85 mg/kg; intra-peritoneal)
on the 29th and 30th days. Blood and liver samples were collected from all the rats on the 30th day for
biochemical and histopathological observations. HPTLC and GC-MS analyses of EAM were done
using the standard protocols.
Results: The ISO-induced group of rats displayed a significant decrease in the hepatic tissue level
and activities of total protein and aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline
phosphatase (ALP) enzymes, respectively. Moreover, a significant decline in enzymatic and nonenzymatic
antioxidants levels was spotted in the same group. However, EAM pretreatment for 28
days significantly protected the rat liver from the aforementioned alterations. Nevertheless, histopathological
analysis revealed central vein dilation, necrosis, and infiltration of inflammatory cells in
the ISO-induced group, wherein, EAM pretreatment significantly protected the hepatocytes from the
above-mentioned changes indicating its antioxidant and cytoprotective potential. HPTLC analysis
displayed the presence of flavonoids. The GC-MS analysis confirmed the presence of quercetin in
Conclusion: The overall results suggest that EAM pretreatment possesses an ameliorative effect
against the ISO-induced oxidative damage in the rat hepatocytes.