Background: Natural Phytoestrogens present in plants are effective hormonal replacement
therapy. They are converted to estrogenic substances in the gastrointestinal tract, which is considered
as the natural alternative to estrogen substitute treatment for postmenopausal women.
Aim and objective: Salvia officinalis, a herb traditionally used to ameliorate postmenopausal
complications, can provide a safe alternative to synthetic pharmaceuticals for the treatment of
menopause. Therefore, it is conceivable to detect the possible estrogenic effect of Salvia Officinalis
extract as an estrogen replacement therapy in female mice.
Methods: Phytochemical, pharmacological, and immune histopathological techniques are adopted
in this study. HPLC is used for the identification of extracted constituents of sage herb. The
uterotrophic activity of the extract was determined in immature female mice. Moreover, the mean
thickness and luminal epithelium and the photomicrographs of the luminal epithelium of the uterus
were also studied.
Results: HPLC revealed that quercetin is the major extracted constituent (28.6%) of the total
components. Saliva officinalis extract produced a significant increase in the uterine dry weight of
equal potency to estrogen. The uterus exhibited a significant increase in luminal epithelial cell
height (43.3 ± 6.1μm and 36.5 ± 2.5μm) for estradiol and sage extract, respectively, compared with
the control group (18.2 ± 3.5μm). Furthermore, the endometrium showed the lining epithelium
formed of a single layer of columnar epithelium. The stroma seemed more voluminous with dilated
vasculature. Conversely, the myometrium within the uterus was not affected in any of the
Conclusion: The sage herbs induced proliferative changes in the uteri of treated mice, which
suggest possible estrogenic properties. Saliva officinalis extract can be used as a hormonal
replacement for women during menopause and could be further explored for contraceptive use.