Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 Roles in the Pathogenesis of COVID-19

(E-pub Ahead of Print)

Author(s): Azra Kenarkoohi, Maryam Maleki, Tahereh Safari, Mohamadreza Kafashian, Fateme Saljoughi, Shahla Sohrabipour*

Journal Name: Current Hypertension Reviews

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The new pandemic Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) causes a wide range of clinical consequences, from asymptomatic infection to acute respiratory failure and it is very heterogeneous. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is well recognized as a key regulating system in circulatory homeostasis that play prominent roles in pathophysiological processes in abnormal activation for instance renal and cardiovascular diseases, obesity, and stroke. Angiotensin converting enzyme 2(ACE2) as a component of the RAS system. However, unlike the ACE, its activity is not inhibited by the ACE inhibitors. The major product of ACE2 is Ang1-7, known as a vasodilator peptide and part of the depressant arm of the RAS. There are two form of ACE2. Coronavirus cover with some proteins in order to help viral attachment to the cell membrane ACE2 as a receptor and then fuse and enter the cells. ACE2 was expressed in oral Cavity, salivary glands of the mouth, esophagus, myocardial cells, kidney, and enterocytes, along all the respiratory tract, intestine, and blood vessels. In this article, we explain the renin-angiotensin system and its components. Also, we shortly explain the organs involved in COVID-19 disease and we will talk about the possible causes of damage to these organs. We also reviewed the probable mechanism of using ACE2 in viral attachment and the probable treatment processes will also be discussed based on the surface proteins of the virus and ACE2. In addition, we briefly discuss the anti-angiotensin drugs and why patients with chronic disease are more susceptible to COVID-19 infection and show worse progression.

Keywords: COVID-19, Renin-angiotensin system, angiotensin converting enzyme 2, coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors

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(E-pub Ahead of Print)
DOI: 10.2174/1573402116666200810134702
Price: $95

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