Diabetes mellitus is one of the long-known chronic diseases. Today, over 400 million people have been diagnosed with diabetes, yet curing it is still a challenge. Over the decades, the approaches of treating diabetes mellitus have evolved and polymeric materials have played an integral part in devel-oping and manufacturing anti-diabetic medications. However, injection of insulin remains a conven-tional therapy for the treatment of diabetes. Oral administration is generally the most preferred route; yet, physiological barriers lead to a challenge in the formulation development for oral delivery of anti-diabetic peptide and protein drugs. This present review focuses on the role of different types of biodegradable polymers (e.g., synthetic and natural) that have been used to develop micro and nanoparticles based formulations for anti-diabetic drugs (Type 1 and Type 2) and how the various en-capsulation strategies impact its therapeutic effect, including pharmacokinetics studies, drug release profiles, and efficacy of the encapsulated drugs. This review also includes studies of different dosage forms such as oral, nasal, inhalation, and sublingual for the treatment of diabetes that have been investigated using synthetic and natural biodegradable polymers in order to develop an alternative route to subcutaneous route for better control of serum glucose levels.