A Systematic Review of Traditionally Used Herbs and Animal-Derived Products as Potential Analgesics

Author(s): Kannan R.R. Rengasamy, Mohamad Fawzi Mahomoodally*, Teshika Joaheer, Yansheng Zhang

Journal Name: Current Neuropharmacology

Volume 19 , Issue 4 , 2021

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Graphical Abstract:


Pain is a distressing but fundamental manifestation that prepares the body for potentially detrimental stimuli while ensuring its protection. Plant and animal products have traditionally been used to relieve pain for centuries. However, no attempt has been made to compile a single report of plant and animal products possessing analgesic properties. This review enadeavours to recover data from published articles to establish a collective literature review on folk remedies from plant and animal sources used as analgesics and in the treatment of pain-related conditions, identifying gaps in existing knowledge and future works. Relevant information was systematically retrieved using the PRISMA method. In this review, in total, 209 plants were found to be either used raw or prepared by decoctions or maceration. Administration was either oral or topical, and they were predominantly used in Asian countries. In vivo studies of plants with analgesic properties, which were tested using different methods including acetic-induced writhing test, hotplate test, tail-flick test, and formalin-induced pain test, were compiled. Animal products with analgesic properties were obtained mainly from compounds present in venom; their bioactive compounds were also identified. In the literature search, certain gaps were noted, which could be reviewed in future studies. For instance, there was a disparity of information regarding the traditional uses of medicinal plants. In this review, an attempt was made to critically assess and describe the pharmacological properties and bioactive composition of indigenous plants, some animal species, and animal venom by scrutinizing databases and looking for published articles. Therefore, it can be concluded that the compounds obtained from these sources can serve as important ingredients in therapeutic agents to alleviate pain once their limitations are assessed and improved upon. In the literature search, certain gaps were noted, which could be reviewed in future studies.

Keywords: Traditional medicine, pain, analgesics, pharmacological, plants, animals.

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Article Details

Year: 2021
Published on: 07 April, 2021
Page: [553 - 588]
Pages: 36
DOI: 10.2174/1570159X18666200808151522
Price: $65

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