Background: The reduction in the intake of dietary fat has traditionally been the cornerstone
of dietary recommendations of many of the leading health organizations as a key measure to
prevent cardiometabolic diseases. However, dietary fat recommendations are sometimes contrasting.
In addition, many consumers and food manufacturers are still confused about the effects of fatty
acids on coronary heart disease after decades of focus on the low-fat diet.
Objectives: To provide an overview of the recently available evidence on the effect of fatty acids
on cardiometabolic risk and the various dietary recommendations related to reducing fat in the diet.
It will also highlight the effect of the isocaloric substitution of fat by other macronutrients.
Methodology: The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed, Medline, Clinical
trials.gov, Google Scholar, Science Direct, ADI, and WHO database were searched through to
Results: Recent evidence demonstrates that higher dietary intakes of saturated fatty acids are associated
with an increased risk of coronary heart disease which is consistent with the previous scientific
evidence. In addition, recent findings indicate that replacing total saturated fatty acids with polyunsaturated
fatty acids, monosaturated fatty acids and high-quality carbohydrates reduces cardiometabolic
Conclusion: Higher dietary intakes of saturated fatty acids are associated with an increased coronary
heart disease risk. Recent scientific evidence highlights the importance of replacing total saturated
fat with more healthy alternatives including polyunsaturated fatty acids, monosaturated fatty
acids, and high-quality carbohydrates which is consistent with the latest recommendations of the