LncRNA Xist, X-chromosome Instability and Alzheimer’s Disease

Author(s): Kaushik Chanda, Debashis Mukhopadhyay*

Journal Name: Current Alzheimer Research

Volume 17 , Issue 6 , 2020

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Neurodegenerative Diseases (NDD) are the major contributors to age-related causes of mental disability on a global scale. Most NDDs, like Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), are complex in nature - implying that they are multi-parametric both in terms of heterogeneous clinical outcomes and underlying molecular paradigms. Emerging evidence from high throughput genomic, transcriptomic and small RNA sequencing experiments hint at the roles of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in AD. X-inactive Specific Transcript (XIST), a component of the Xic, the X-chromosome inactivation centre, is an RNA gene on the X chromosome of the placental mammals indispensable for the X inactivation process. An extensive literature survey shows that aberrations in Xist expression and in some cases, a disruption of the Xchromosome inactivation as a whole play a significant role in AD. Considering the enormous potential of Xist as an endogenous silencing molecule, the idea of using Xist as a non-conventional chromosome silencer to treat diseases harboring chromosomal alterations is also being implemented. Comprehensive knowledge about how Xist could play such a role in AD is still elusive. In this review, we have collated the available knowledge on the possible Xist involvement and deregulation from the perspective of molecular mechanisms governing NDDs with a primary focus on Alzheimer’s disease. Possibilities of XIST mediated therapeutic intervention and linkages between XIC and preferential predisposition of females to AD have also been discussed.

Keywords: Alzheimer's disease, long non-coding RNA, X chromosome instability, Xist, neurodegenerative diseases, Huntington's disease.

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