Vitamin E, essential for human health, is widely used worldwide for therapeutic or dietary
reasons. The differences in the metabolism and excretion of the multiple vitamin E forms are presented
in this review. The important steps that influence the kinetics of each form and the distribution and
processing of vitamin E forms by the liver are considered. The antioxidant as well as non-antioxidant
properties of vitamin E forms are discussed. Finally, synthetic tocopherol and trolox derivatives, based
on the design of multitarget directed compounds, are reviewed. It is demonstrated that selected derivatization
of vitamin E or trolox structures can produce improved antioxidants, agents against cancer, cardiovascular
and neurodegenerative disorders.
Keywords: Vitamin E, tocopherols, tocotrienols, metabolism, transport, antioxidants, trolox, synthetic analogues.
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