The current review discusses the different synthetic pathways for one of the most important
and interesting heterocyclic ring systems, 1,4-dihydropyridine. This cyclic system depicts diverse
pharmacological action on several receptors, channels, and enzymes. Dihydropyridine moiety plays an
important role in several calcium-channel blockers. Moreover, it has been exploited for the treatment
of a variety of cardiovascular diseases due to its potential antihypertensive, anti-angina, vasodilator,
and cardiac depressant activities. Furthermore, it also shows antibacterial, anticancer, anti-leishmanial,
anticoagulant, anticonvulsant, anti-tubercular, antioxidant, antiulcer, and neuroprotective properties.
Several reports have demonstrated dihydropyridine derivatives as a potentiator of cystic fibrosis transmembrane
conductance regulator protein, potent antimalarial agent and HIV-1 protease inhibitor.
Herein, we have briefly reviewed different novel chemistry and the synthesis of 1,4-dihydropyridine.