Ginseng, also known as the king of herbs, has been regarded as an important traditional
medicine for several millennia. Ginsenosides, a group of triterpenoid saponins, have been characterized
as bioactive compounds of ginseng. The complexity of ginsenosides hindered ginseng research
and development both in cultivation and clinical research. Therefore, deciphering the ginsenoside biosynthesis
pathway has been a focus of interest for researchers worldwide. The new emergence of biological
research tools consisting of omics and bioinformatic tools or computational biology tools are
the research trend in the new century. Ginseng is one of the main subjects analyzed using these new
quantification tools, including tools of genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics. Here, we review the
current progress of ginseng omics research and provide results for the ginsenoside biosynthesis pathway.
Organization and expression of the entire pathway, including the upstream MVA pathway, the
cyclization of ginsenoside precursors, and the glycosylation process, are illustrated. Regulatory gene
families such as transcriptional factors and transporters are also discussed in this review.