Schistosome infection is regarded as one of the most important and neglected tropical
diseases associated with poor sanitation. Like other living organisms, schistosomes employ multiple
biological processes, of which some are regulated by a post-translational modification called
Adenosine Diphosphate-ribosylation (ADP-ribosylation), catalyzed by ADP-ribosyltransferases.
ADP-ribosylation is the addition of ADP-ribose moieties from Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide
(NAD+) to various targets, which include proteins and nucleotides. It is crucial in biological
processes such as DNA repair, apoptosis, carbohydrate metabolism and catabolism. In the absence
of a vaccine against schistosomiasis, this becomes a promising pathway in the identification
of drug targets against various forms of this infection. The tegument of the worm is an encouraging
immunogenic target for anti-schistosomal vaccine development. Vaccinology, molecular
modeling and target-based drug discovery strategies have been used for years in drug discovery
and for vaccine development. In this paper, we outline ADP-ribosylation and other different
approaches to drug discovery and vaccine development against schistosomiasis.