The Deadly Quartet (Covid-19, Old Age, Lung Disease, and Heart Failure) Explains Why Coronavirus-Related Mortality in Northern Italy Was So High

Author(s): Giuseppe Calcaterra, Pier P. Bassareo*, Francesco Barillà, Domenico Sergi, Marcello Chiocchi, Francesco Romeo, Jawahar L. Mehta

Journal Name: Current Cardiology Reviews

Volume 17 , Issue 1 , 2021


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Abstract:

Since its outbreak in China at the end of 2019, the new coronavirus disease (COVID-19) was characterized by both easy spreading and high mortality. The latter proved to be way more elevated in the North of Italy -with a peak of 18.4% in region Lombardia and even 31% in the city of Bergamo and surrounding county- than in the rest of the world. In an attempt to conceptualize the reasons for such a dramatic situation, four key elements have been identified: COVID-19 itself, old age, lung disease, and heart failure. Their harmful combination has been named “The deadly quartet”. The underlying risk factors, among which a lot of them are distinctive features of the population in northern Italy, have been summarized as “unmodifiable”, “partially modifiable”, and “modifiable”, for the sake of clarity. Up-to-date scientific evidence in this field has been described in the form of a narrative and easy-to-read review.

Keywords: COVID-19, coronavirus, Italy, mortality, lung, heart.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 17
ISSUE: 1
Year: 2021
Published on: 11 March, 2021
Page: [74 - 77]
Pages: 4
DOI: 10.2174/1573403X16666200731162614
Price: $65

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