Background: Chemoresistance is a vital problem in cancer therapy where cancer cells develop
mechanisms to encounter the effect of chemotherapeutics, resulting in cancer recurrence. In addition, chemotherapy-
resistant leads to the formation of a more aggressive form of cancer cells, which, in turn, contributes to
the poor survival of patients with cancer.
Objective: In this review, we aimed to provide an overview of how the therapy resistance property evolves in
cancer cells, contributing factors and their role in cancer chemoresistance, and exemplified the problems of
some available therapies.
Methods: The published literature on various electronic databases including, Pubmed, Scopus, Google scholar
containing keywords cancer therapy resistance, phenotypic, metabolic and epigenetic factors, were vigorously
searched, retrieved and analyzed.
Results: Cancer cells have developed a range of cellular processes, including uncontrolled activation of Epithelial-
Mesenchymal Transition (EMT), metabolic reprogramming and epigenetic alterations. These cellular processes
play significant roles in the generation of therapy resistance. Furthermore, the microenvironment where
cancer cells evolve effectively contributes to the process of chemoresistance. In tumour microenvironment immune
cells, Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs), endothelial cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) contribute
to the maintenance of therapy-resistant phenotype via the secretion of factors that promote resistance to
Conclusion: To conclude, as these factors hinder successful cancer therapies, therapeutic resistance property of
cancer cells is a subject of intense research, which in turn could open a new horizon to aim for developing efficient