Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an age-associated nervous system disorder and a leading cause
of dementia worldwide. Clinically, it is described by cognitive impairment and pathophysiologically
by deposition of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain and neurodegeneration. This
article reviews the pathophysiology, course of neuronal degeneration, and the various possible hypothesis
of AD progression. These hypotheses include amyloid cascade, tau hyperphosphorylation, cholinergic
disruption, metal dysregulation, vascular dysfunction, oxidative stress, and neuroinflammation.
There is an exponential increase in the occurrence of AD in the recent few years that indicate an urgent
need to develop some effective treatment. Currently, only 2 classes of drugs are available for AD
treatment, namely acetylcholinesterase inhibitor and NMDA receptor antagonist. Since AD is a complex
neurological disorder and these drugs use a single target approach, alternatives are needed due to
limited effectiveness and unpleasant side-effects of these drugs. Currently, plants have been used for
drug development research especially because of their multiple sites of action and fewer side effects.
Uses of some herbs and phytoconstituents for the management of neuronal disorders like AD have
been documented in this article. Phytochemical screening of these plants shows the presence of many
beneficial constituents like flavonoids, triterpenes, alkaloids, sterols, polyphenols, and tannins. These
compounds show a wide array of pharmacological activities, such as anti-amyloidogenic, anticholinesterase,
and antioxidants. This article summarizes the present understanding of AD progression and
gathers biochemical evidence from various works on natural products that can be useful in the management
of this disease.