Palmatine Inhibits Up-Regulation of GRP78 and CALR Protein in an STZ-Induced Diabetic Rat Model

Author(s): Patrick N. Okechukwu*, Sophia O. Ekeuku, Hor K. Chan, Kalpana Eluri, Gabriele R.A. Froemming

Journal Name: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology

Volume 22 , Issue 2 , 2021

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Graphical Abstract:


Background: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is characterized by hyperglycemia (high blood glucose levels) which is due to the destruction of insulin-producing β-cells in the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. It is associated with oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress. The plant alkaloid Palmatine has been previously reported to possess antidiabetic and antioxidant properties as well as other protective properties against kidney and liver tissue damage.

Objective: Here, we investigated the ability of Palmatine to reduce the up-regulation of chaperone proteins Glucose Regulatory Protein 78 (GRP78), and Calreticulin (CALR) protein in a Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rat model.

Methods: Streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes in Sprague Dawley rats treated with 2mg/kg of Palmatine for 12 weeks after the elevation of plasma glucose levels above 11mmol/L post-STZ administration. Proteins were extracted from the pancreas after treatment and Two-Dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), PDQuest 2-D analysis software genomic solutions and mass spectrometer were used to analyze differentially expressed protein. Mass Spectrometry (MS/MS), Multidimensional Protein Identification Technology (MudPIT) was used for protein identification.

Results: There was an up-regulation of the expression of chaperone proteins CALR and GRP78 and down-regulation of the expression of antioxidant and protection proteins peroxidoxin 4 (Prdx4), protein disulfide isomerase (PDIA2/3), Glutathione-S-Transferase (GSTs), and Serum Albumin (ALB) in non-diabetic rats. Palmatine treatment down-regulated the expression of chaperone proteins CALR and GRP78 and up-regulated the expression of Prdx4, PDIA2/3, GST, and ALB.

Conclusion: Palmatine may have activated antioxidant proteins, which protected the cells against reactive oxygen species and endoplasmic stress. The result is in consonance with our previous report on Palmatine.

Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, Palmatine, 2-DE, GRP78, CALR, Streptozotocin.

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Article Details

Year: 2021
Published on: 30 July, 2020
Page: [288 - 298]
Pages: 11
DOI: 10.2174/1389201021666200730124208
Price: $65

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