Anticancer drugs based on the microtubules target are potent mitotic spindle poison agents,
which interact directly with the microtubules, and were classified as microtubule-stabilizing agents and
microtubule-destabilizing agents. Researchers have worked tremendously towards the improvements
of anticancer drugs, in terms of improving the efficacy, solubility and reducing the side effects, which
brought about advancement in chemotherapy. In this review, we focused on describing the discovery,
structures and functions of the microtubules as well as the progress of anticancer agents related to the
microtubules, which will provide adequate references for researchers.