Background: Rapid industrialisation, population growth and technological race worldwide have brought adverse
consequences on water resources and as a result affect human health. Toxic metal ions, non-biodegradable dyes, organic
pollutants, pesticides, pharmaceuticals are among the chief hazardous materials released into the water bodies from various
sources. These hazardous contaminants drastically affect the flora and fauna globally leading to health deterioration there
by giving rise to new biomedical challenges.
Hypothesis: Montmorillonite based nanocomposites (MMTCs) have drawn an attention of the researchers to design
environmental friendly, advanced and hygienic nanocomposites for wastewater treatment and biomedical purposes.
Montmorillonite clay possesses peculiar physical and chemical properties that include enhanced surface reactivity, improved
rheological performance, exorbitant miscibility in water due to which it shows highly favourable interactions with polymers,
drugs, metals, mixed metals and metal oxides leading to the fabrication of different types of advanced montmorillonite
based nanocomposites that have remarkable applications.
Methodology: Here we review the structural characteristics of montmorillonite clay, advances in the synthetic techniques
involved in the fabrication of montmorillonite nanocomposites, their applications in waste water treatment and in bio
medical field. The recently developed montmorillonite nanocomposites for (1) waste water treatment as nano-adsorbents
for the elimination of toxic inorganic species such as metal ions and heterogeneous photo-catalysts for photo degradation
of dyes, pesticides and pharmaceuticals (2) biomedical utilization viz drug delivery, wound amelioration, bone cement,
tissue engineering etc. are presented.
Conclusion: The review exclusively focuses on recent research on montmorillonite based nanocomposites and their
application in wastewater treatment and in biomedical field.