Background: Formation of the microbial colonies in the wet and damp environment
affects the indoor air quality thus posing severe threats to human health. Health problems or Building-
associated illness (any disease or infection) caused by being in a closed space or building are
generally separated into two categories including building-related illness (BRI) and sick building
syndrome (SBS). Considered by Pathognomy research, that biological pollutants or bioaerosols (bacteria,
fungi and viruses like coronavirus), are the significant inducement for “sick building syndrome
(SBS)” associated with a group of mucosal, skin, and general symptoms, characterized by tiredness;
headaches; irritation of skin, nose, eyes, throat and mucous membranes, most prevalent in buildings
like residential and occupational like offices, schools, hotels and hospitals.
Methods: Currently outdoor air purging, UV light activated air filters, chemical treatment like ozonation
and oxidation, are used for the improvement of indoor air quality but these treatment techniques
not only produce secondary biological pollutants but are also costly and not effective for a variety of
microorganisms. In recent years, nanomaterials in the area of heterogeneous photocatalysis have
gained much attention because of their enhanced physicochemical properties including particle size,
surface area, dopant dispersion and interaction with the support (Titanium).
Results: Heterogeneous photocatalysis systems have been reported to produce self-cleaning materials
and to solve a range of environmental problems like air and water detoxification. Among various
heterogeneous photocatalysts, TiO2 gained much attention due to its non-toxic nature, high stability,
excellent photocatalytic ability, self-cleaning and antibacterial properties and most of all low cost and
commercial availability. It is among the basic materials being used in various commercial products
like as white pigment in paints for building coating. The antibacterial properties are associated with
the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the presence of a light source.
Conclusion: Some of the reported TiO2 nanomaterials-based air-filters and building coatings are reported
with the major drawbacks like lower surface area, inactivation in the absence of light (dark)
and activation only under UV light irradiation. Thus, the requirement for cost effective, safer and energy
efficient materials is the need of the day.