Background: Waste biomass derived reusable heterogeneous acid based catalysts are
more suitable to overcome the problems associated with homogeneous catalysts. The use of agricultural
biomass as catalyst for transesterification process is more economical and it reduces the
overall production cost of biodiesel. The identification of an appropriate suitable catalyst for effective
transesterification will be a landmark in the biofuel sector.
Objective: In the present investigation, waste wood biomass was used to prepare a low cost sulfonated
solid acid catalyst for the production of biodiesel using waste cooking oil.
Methods: The pretreated wood biomass was first calcined then sulfonated with H2SO4. The catalyst
was characterized by various analyses such as Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR),
Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray
diffraction (XRD). The central composite design (CCD) based response surface methodology
(RSM) was applied to study the influence of individual process variables such as temperature, catalyst
load, methanol to oil molar ration and reaction time on biodiesel yield.
Results: The obtained optimized conditions are as follows: temperature (165°C), catalyst loading
(1.625 wt%), methanol to oil molar ratio (15:1) and reaction time (143 min) with a maximum biodiesel
yield of 95%. The Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of biodiesel
produced from waste cooking oil showed that it has a mixture of both monounsaturated and saturated
Conclusion: Thus the waste wood biomass-derived heterogeneous catalyst for the transesterification
process of waste cooking oil can be applied for sustainable biodiesel production by adding an
additional value for the waste materials and also eliminating the disposable problem of waste oils.