An Overview of High-grade Glioma: Current and Emerging Treatment Approaches

Author(s): S.G. Kavya, R. Reghu*

Journal Name: Current Cancer Therapy Reviews

Volume 17 , Issue 1 , 2021


Become EABM
Become Reviewer
Call for Editor

Graphical Abstract:


Abstract:

High grade glioma is one of the severe form of tumour that progresses in the glial cells of the brain and spinal cord. Age, gender, exposure to infections, race, ethnicity, viruses and allergens, environmental carcinogens, diet, head injury or trauma and ionizing radiation may report with increased glioma risk. Headache, seizure mainly generalized tonic-clonic seizure, memory loss and altered sensorium are considered as common symptoms of glioma. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), CT scans, neurological examinations and biopsy are considered as the diagnostic option for glioma. Treatment for glioma mainly depended upon the tumour progression, malignancy, cell type, age, location of tumour growth and anatomic structure. The standard treatment includes surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Temozolomide is usually prescribed at a dosage of 75 mg/m2 and began in combination with radiation therapy and continued daily. The primary indicator of hepatotoxicity is the elevation of the liver profiles, i.e. the changes in any of the liver panels may be considered to be hepatotoxic. Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), Serum Glutamic Pyruvic Transaminase (SGPT), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) are rising panels of the liver, which are elevated during toxicity. In some patients, albumin and globulin levels may show variations. Treatment for glioma associated symptoms like seizures, depression anxiety etc. are also mentioned along with supportive care for glioma. New trends in the treatment for glioma are RINTEGA, an experimental immunotherapeutic agent and bevazizumab, a recombinant monoclonal, a humanized antibody against the VEGF ligand [VEGF-A (vascular endothelial growth factor)] in tumor cells.

Keywords: Glioma, temozolomide, chemotherapy, hepatotoxicity, supportive care, tumour.

[1]
Jooma R, Waqas M, Khan I. Diffuse low-grade glioma - changing concepts in diagnosis and management: A review. Asian J Neurosurg 2019; 14(2): 356-63.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ajns.AJNS_24_18] [PMID: 31143247]
[2]
Davis ME. GBM treatment overview. Clin J Oncol Nurs 2016; 20: 1-4.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1188/16.CJON.S1.2-8]
[3]
Swartling FJ, Hede SM, Weiss WA. What underlies the diversity of brain tumors? Cancer Metastasis Rev 2013; 32(1-2): 5-24.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10555-012-9407-3] [PMID: 23085857]
[4]
Rasmussen BK, Hansen S, Laursen RJ, et al. Epidemiology of glioma: Clinical characteristics, symptoms, and predictors of glioma patients grade I-IV in the the Danish Neuro-Oncology Registry. J Neurooncol 2017; 135(3): 571-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11060-017-2607-5] [PMID: 28861666]
[5]
Gladson CL, Prayson RA, Liu WM. The pathobiology of glioma tumors. Annu Rev Pathol 2010; 5: 33-50.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-pathol-121808-102109] [PMID: 19737106]
[6]
Raizer JJ, Grimm S, Chamberlain MC, et al. A phase 2 trial of single-agent bevacizumab given in an every-3-week schedule for patients with recurrent high-grade gliomas. Cancer 2010; 116(22): 5297-305.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.25462] [PMID: 20665891]
[7]
Sethi P, Treece J, Pai V, Onweni C, Rahman Z, Singh S. The mystery of multiple masses: A case of anaplastic astrocytoma. Cureus 2017; 9(6): e1384.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.1384] [PMID: 28775924]
[8]
Tarık T. ‹HAN, Ayça ERfiEN. Pathology of malignant gliomas: Challenges of everyday practice and the WHO 2007. Turkish J Pathol 2008; 24(3): 194-212.
[9]
Wu J, Armstrong TS, Gilbert MR. Biology and management of ependymomas. Neuro-oncol 2016; 18(7): 902-13.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuonc/now016] [PMID: 27022130]
[10]
Oh MC, Kim JM, Kaur G, et al. Prognosis by tumor location in adults with spinal ependymomas. J Neurosurg Spine 2013; 18(3): 226-35.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2012.12.SPINE12591] [PMID: 23311515]
[11]
Schneider T, Mawrin C, Scherlach C, Skalej M, Firsching R. Gliomas in adults. Dtsch Arztebl Int 2010; 107(45): 799-807.
[PMID: 21124703]
[12]
Cloughesy T. The impact of recent data on the optimization of standards of care in newly diagnosed glioblastoma. Semin Oncol 2011; 38(4): S11-20.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.seminoncol.2011.09.007] [PMID: 22078643]
[13]
Louis DN, Perry A, Reifenberger G, et al. The 2016 World Health Organization classification of tumors of the central nervous system: A summary. Acta Neuropathol 2016; 131(6): 803-20.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00401-016-1545-1] [PMID: 27157931]
[14]
Brat DJ, Aldape K, Colman H, et al. cIMPACT-NOW update 3: Recommended diagnostic criteria for “Diffuse astrocytic glioma, IDH-wildtype, with molecular features of glioblastoma, WHO grade IV”. Acta Neuropathol 2018; 136(5): 805-10.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00401-018-1913-0] [PMID: 30259105]
[15]
Velázquez Vega JE, Brat DJ. Incorporating advances in molecular pathology into brain tumor diagnostics. Adv Anat Pathol 2018; 25(3): 143-71.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAP.0000000000000186] [PMID: 29521646]
[17]
Louis DN, Perry P, Reifenberger G, et al. The 2016 World Health Organization classification of tumors of the central nervous system: A summery. Acta Neuropathol 2016; 131(6): 803-20.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00401-016-1545-1] [PMID: 27157931]
[18]
Komori T. The 2016 WHO classification of tumours of the central nervous system: The major points of revision. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo) 2017; 57(7): 301-11.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2176/nmc.ra.2017-0010] [PMID: 28592714]
[19]
Wesseling P, Capper D. WHO 2016 Classification of gliomas. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 2018; 44(2): 139-50.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nan.12432] [PMID: 28815663]
[20]
Ohgaki H, Kleihues P. Epidemiology and etiology of gliomas. Acta Neuropathol 2005; 109(1): 93-108.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00401-005-0991-y] [PMID: 15685439]
[21]
Erdal S, McCarthy BJ, Gurule N, et al. Application of mutagen sensitivity assay in a glioma case-control study. Toxicol Rep 2018; 5: 183-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxrep.2017.12.010] [PMID: 29854587]
[22]
Benson VS, Pirie K, Green J, Casabonne D, Beral V. Million Women Study Collaborators. Lifestyle factors and primary glioma and meningioma tumours in the Million Women Study cohort. Br J Cancer 2008; 99(1): 185-90.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.bjc.6604445] [PMID: 18560401]
[23]
Liu A, Hou C, Chen H, Zong X, Zong P. Genetics and epigenetics of glioblastoma: Applications and overall incidence of IDH1 mutation. Front Oncol 2016; 6: 16.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2016.00016] [PMID: 26858939]
[24]
Deng L, Xiong P, Luo Y, et al. Association between IDH1/2 mutations and brain glioma grade. Oncol Lett 2018; 16(4): 5405-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ol.2018.9317] [PMID: 30250611]
[25]
Cohen AL, Holmen SL, Colman H. IDH1 and IDH2 mutations in gliomas. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2013; 13(5): 345.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11910-013-0345-4] [PMID: 23532369]
[26]
Hanif F, Muzaffar K, Perveen K, Malhi SM, Simjee ShU. Glioblastoma multiforme: A review of its epidemiology and pathogenesis through clinical presentation and treatment. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2017; 18(1): 3-9.
[PMID: 28239999]
[27]
Davis FG, Malmer BS, Aldape K, et al. Issues of diagnostic review in brain tumor studies: From the brain tumor epidemiology consortium. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2008; 17(3): 484-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-07-0725] [PMID: 18349266]
[28]
Huang J, Yu J, Tu L, Huang N, Li H, Luo Y. isocitrate dehydrogenase mutations in glioma: From basic discovery to therapeutics development. Front Oncol 2019; 9: 506.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.00506] [PMID: 31263678]
[29]
Bienkowski M, Furtner J, Hainfellner JA. Clinical neuropathology of brain tumors. Handb Clin Neurol 2017; 145: 477-534.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-802395-2.00032-8] [PMID: 28987190]
[30]
Kumar S, Handa A, Sinha R, Tiwari R. Bilateral cystic glioblastoma multiforme. J Neurosci Rural Pract 2013; 4(4): 476-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0976-3147.120196] [PMID: 24347967]
[31]
Mrugala MM, Chamberlain MC. Mechanisms of disease: Temozolomide and glioblastoma- look to the future. Nat Clin Pract Oncol 2008; 5(8): 476-86.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncponc1155] [PMID: 18542116]
[32]
Carlson BL, Grogan PT, Mladek AC, et al. Radiosensitizing effects of temozolomide observed in vivo only in a subset of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase methylated glioblastoma multiforme xenografts. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2009; 75(1): 212-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2009.04.026] [PMID: 19695438]
[33]
Abdelzaher E. Glioblastoma multiforme, NOS Pathology. Available from: http://www.pathologyoutlines.com/topic/cnstumor glioblastoma.html
[34]
Wang J, Hu G, Quan X. Analysis of the factors affecting the prognosis of glioma patients. Open Med (Wars) 2019; 14(1): 331-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/med-2019-0031] [PMID: 30997396]
[35]
IJzerman-Korevaar M, Snijders TJ, de Graeff A, Teunissen SCCM, de Vos FYF. Prevalence of symptoms in glioma patients throughout the disease trajectory: A systematic review. J Neurooncol 2018; 140(3): 485-96.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11060-018-03015-9] [PMID: 30377935]
[36]
Mallick S, Benson R, Hakim A, Rath GK. Management of glioblastoma after recurrence: A changing paradigm. J Egypt Natl Canc Inst 2016; 28(4): 199-210.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jnci.2016.07.001] [PMID: 27476474]
[37]
Nelson JW, Yoo DS, Sampson JH, et al. Stereotactic body radiotherapy for lesions of the spine and paraspinal regions. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2009; 73(5): 1369-75.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2008.06.1949] [PMID: 19004569]
[38]
Socha J, Kepka L, Ghosh S, et al. Outcome of treatment of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme in elderly and/or frail patients. J Neurooncol 2016; 126(3): 493-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11060-015-1987-7] [PMID: 26542030]
[39]
Friedman HS, Pluda J, Quinn JA, et al. Phase I trial of carmustine plus O6-benzylguanine for patients with recurrent or progressive malignant glioma. J Clin Oncol 2000; 18(20): 3522-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2000.18.20.3522] [PMID: 11032594]
[40]
Quant EC, Norden AD, Drappatz J, et al. Role of a second chemotherapy in recurrent malignant glioma patients who progress on bevacizumab. Neuro-oncol 2009; 11(5): 550-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1215/15228517-2009-006] [PMID: 19332770]
[41]
McGirt MJ, Villavicencio AT, Bulsara KR, Friedman AH. MRI-guided stereotactic biopsy in the diagnosis of glioma: Comparison of biopsy and surgical resection specimen. Surg Neurol 2003; 59(4): 277-81.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0090-3019(03)00048-X] [PMID: 12748009]
[42]
Omuro A, DeAngelis LM. Glioblastoma and other malignant gliomas: A clinical review. JAMA 2013; 310(17): 1842-50.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2013.280319] [PMID: 24193082]
[43]
Nelson SJ, Cha S. Imaging glioblastoma multiforme. Cancer J 2003; 9(2): 134-45.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00130404-200303000-00009] [PMID: 12784879]
[44]
Ullrich RT, Kracht LW, Jacobs AH. Neuroimaging in patients with gliomas. Semin Neurol 2008; 28(4): 484-94.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0028-1083696] [PMID: 18843576]
[45]
Henson JW, Gaviani P, Gonzalez RG. MRI in treatment of adult gliomas. Lancet Oncol 2005; 6(3): 167-75.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(05)01767-5] [PMID: 15737833]
[46]
Huang RY, Neagu MR, Reardon DA, Wen PY. Pitfalls in the neuroimaging of glioblastoma in the era of antiangiogenic and immuno/targeted therapy - detecting illusive disease, defining response. Front Neurol 2015; 6: 33.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2015.00033] [PMID: 25755649]
[47]
Muragaki Y, Chernov M, Maruyama T, et al. Low-grade glioma on stereotactic biopsy: How often is the diagnosis accurate? Minim Invasive Neurosurg 2008; 51(5): 275-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0028-1082322] [PMID: 18855292]
[48]
Metcalfe SE, Grant R. Biopsy versus resection for malignant glioma. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2001; (3): CD002034.
[PMID: 11687008]
[49]
Koukourakis GV, Kouloulias V, Zacharias G, et al. Temozolomide with radiation therapy in high grade brain gliomas: Pharmaceuticals considerations and efficacy; a review article. Molecules 2009; 14(4): 1561-77.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules14041561] [PMID: 19384285]
[50]
Nunez OM, Seol HJ, Rutka JT. The role of surgery in the management of intracranial gliomas: Current concepts. Indian J Cancer 2009; 46(2): 120-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0019-509X.49149] [PMID: 19346645]
[51]
Hochberg FH, Pruitt A. Assumptions in the radiotherapy of glioblastoma. Neurology 1980; 30(9): 907-11.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.30.9.907] [PMID: 6252514]
[52]
Laperriere N, Zuraw L, Cairncross G. Cancer Care Ontario Practice Guidelines Initiative Neuro-Oncology Disease Site Group. Radiotherapy for newly diagnosed malignant glioma in adults: A systematic review. Radiother Oncol 2002; 64(3): 259-73.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0167-8140(02)00078-6] [PMID: 12242114]
[53]
Chalmers AJ, Ruff EM, Martindale C, Lovegrove N, Short SC. Cytotoxic effects of temozolomide and radiation are additive- and schedule-dependent. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2009; 75(5): 1511-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2009.07.1703] [PMID: 19931733]
[54]
Quant EC, Drappatz J, Wen PY, Norden AD. Recurrent high -grade glioma. Curr Treat Options Neurol 2010; 12(4): 321-33.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11940-010-0078-5] [PMID: 20842591]
[55]
Alan Mitteer R, Wang Y, Shah J, et al. Proton beam radiation induces DNA damage and cell apoptosis in glioma stem cells through reactive oxygen species. Sci Rep 2015; 5(1): 13961.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep13961] [PMID: 26354413]
[57]
Conti A, Pontoriero A, Arpa D, et al. Efficacy and toxicity of CyberKnife re-irradiation and “dose dense” temozolomide for recurrent gliomas. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2012; 154(2): 203-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00701-011-1184-1] [PMID: 21984132]
[58]
Kreth FW, Faist M, Warnke PC, Rossner R, Volk B, Ostertag CB. Interstitial radiosurgery of low-grade gliomas. J Neurosurg 1995; 82(3): 418-29.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/jns.1995.82.3.0418] [PMID: 7861220]
[59]
Chamberlain MC, Barba D, Kormanik P, Shea WM. Stereotactic radiosurgery for recurrent gliomas. Cancer 1994; 74(4): 1342-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1097-0142(19940815)74:4<1342:AID-CNCR2820740426>3.0.CO;2-Y] [PMID: 8055458]
[60]
Baskar R, Lee KA, Yeo R, Yeoh K-W. Cancer and radiation therapy: Current advances and future directions. Int J Med Sci 2012; 9(3): 193-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijms.3635] [PMID: 22408567]
[61]
Graves EE, Nelson SJ, Vigneron DB, et al. Serial proton MR spectroscopic imaging of recurrent malignant gliomas after gamma knife radiosurgery. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2001; 22(4): 613-24.
[PMID: 11290467]
[62]
Yen CP, Sheehan J, Steiner M, Patterson G, Steiner L. Gamma knife surgery for focal brainstem gliomas. J Neurosurg 2007; 106(1): 8-17.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/jns.2007.106.1.8] [PMID: 17236482]
[63]
Giller CA, Berger BD. New frontiers in radiosurgery for the brain and body. Proc Bayl Univ Med Cent 2005; 18(4): 311-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08998280.2005.11928087] [PMID: 16252020]
[64]
Burton EC, Prados MD. Malignant gliomas. Curr Treat Options Oncol 2000; 1(5): 459-68.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11864-000-0073-2] [PMID: 12057153]
[65]
Man J, Shoemake JD, Ma T, et al. Hyperthermia sensitizes glioma stem-like cells to radiation by inhibiting AKT signaling. Cancer Res 2015; 75(8): 1760-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-14-3621] [PMID: 25712125]
[66]
Stea B, Kittelson J, Cassady JR, et al. Treatment of malignant gliomas with interstitial irradiation and hyperthermia. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1992; 24(4): 657-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0360-3016(92)90711-P]
[68]
Hirschberg H, Sun CH, Tromberg BJ, Yeh AT, Madsen SJ. Enhanced cytotoxic effects of 5-aminolevulinic acid-mediated photodynamic therapy by concurrent hyperthermia in glioma spheroids. J Neurooncol 2004; 70(3): 289-99.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11060-004-9161-7] [PMID: 15662970]
[69]
Mahmoudi K, Bouras A, Bozec D, Ivkov R, Hadjipanayis C. Magnetic hyperthermia therapy for the treatment of glioblastoma: A review of the therapy’s history, efficacy and application in humans. Int J Hyperthermia 2018; 34(8): 1316-28.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02656736.2018.1430867] [PMID: 29353516]
[70]
Yi GQ, Gu B, Chen LK. The safety and efficacy of magnetic nano-iron hyperthermia therapy on rat brain glioma. Tumour Biol 2014; 35(3): 2445-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13277-013-1324-8] [PMID: 24163108]
[71]
Wegscheid ML, Morshed RA, Cheng Y, Lesniak MS. The art of attraction: Applications of multifunctional magnetic nanomaterials for malignant glioma. Expert Opin Drug Deliv 2014; 11(6): 957-75.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1517/17425247.2014.912629] [PMID: 24766329]
[72]
Kornblith PL, Walker M. Chemotherapy for malignant gliomas. J Neurosurg 1988; 68(1): 1-17.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/jns.1988.68.1.0001] [PMID: 3275753]
[73]
Westphal M, Hilt DC, Bortey E, et al. A phase 3 trial of local chemotherapy with biodegradable carmustine (BCNU) wafers ( Gliadel wafers ) in patients with primary malignant glioma. Neuro-oncol 2003; 5(2): 79-88.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuonc/5.2.79] [PMID: 12672279]
[74]
Walker MD, Green SB, Byar DP, et al. Randomized comparisons of radiotherapy and nitrosoureas for the treatment of malignant glioma after surgery. New England J Med 1980; 303(23): 1323-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM198012043032303]
[75]
Prados MD, Edwards MS, Rabbitt J, Lamborn K, Davis RL, Levin VA. Treatment of pediatric low-grade gliomas with a nitrosourea-based multiagent chemotherapy regimen. J Neurooncol 1997; 32(3): 235-41.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1005736104205] [PMID: 9049885]
[76]
Stenning SP, Freedman LS, Bleehen NM. An overview of published results from randomized studies of nitrosoureas in primary high grade malignant glioma. Br J Cancer 1987; 56(1): 89-90.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/bjc.1987.161] [PMID: 3620320]
[77]
Quinn JA, Pluda J, Dolan ME, et al. Phase II trial of carmustine plus O(6)-benzylguanine for patients with nitrosourea-resistant recurrent or progressive malignant glioma. J Clin Oncol 2002; 20(9): 2277-83.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2002.09.084] [PMID: 11980998]
[78]
Rajan B, Ross G, Lim CC, et al. Survival in patients with recurrent glioma as a measure of treatment efficacy: Prognostic factors following nitrosourea chemotherapy. Eur J Cancer 1994; 30A(12): 1809-15.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0959-8049(94)00248-4] [PMID: 7880611]
[79]
Brada M, Stenning S, Gabe R, et al. Temozolomide versus procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine in recurrent high-grade glioma. J Clin Oncol 2010; 28(30): 4601-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2009.27.1932] [PMID: 20855843]
[80]
Shaw EG, Wang M, Coons SW, et al. Randomized trial of radiation therapy plus procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine chemotherapy for supratentorial adult low-grade glioma: Initial results of RTOG 9802. J Clin Oncol 2012; 30(25): 3065-70.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2011.35.8598] [PMID: 22851558]
[81]
Arcicasa M, Roncadin M, Bidoli E, Dedkov A, Gigante M, Trovò MG. Reirradiation and lomustine in patients with relapsed high -grade gliomas. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1999; 43(4): 789-93.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0360-3016(98)00457-X]
[82]
Torres S, Lorente M, Rodríguez-Fornés F, et al. A combined preclinical therapy of cannabinoids and temozolomide against glioma. Mol Cancer Ther 2011; 10(1): 90-103.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-10-0688] [PMID: 21220494]
[83]
Pace A, Vidiri A, Galiè E, et al. Temozolomide chemotherapy for progressive low-grade glioma: Clinical benefits and radiological response. Ann Oncol 2003; 14(12): 1722-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/annonc/mdg502] [PMID: 14630675]
[84]
Hegi ME, Diserens AC, Gorlia T, et al. MGMT gene silencing and benefit from temozolomide in glioblastoma. N Engl J Med 2005; 352(10): 997-1003.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa043331] [PMID: 15758010]
[85]
Zhang J, Stevens MF, Bradshaw TD. Temozolomide: Mechanisms of action, repair and resistance. Curr Mol Pharmacol 2012; 5(1): 102-14.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1874467211205010102] [PMID: 22122467]
[86]
Stupp R, Mason WP, van den Bent MJ, et al. European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Brain Tumor and Radiotherapy Groups; National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group. Radiotherapy plus concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide for glioblastoma. N Engl J Med 2005; 352(10): 987-96.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa043330] [PMID: 15758009]
[87]
Friedman HS, Kerby T, Calvert H. Temozolomide and treatment of malignant glioma. Clin Cancer Res 2000; 6(7): 2585-97.
[PMID: 10914698]
[88]
Bae SH, Park M-J, Lee MM, et al. Toxicity profile of temozolomide in the treatment of 300 malignant glioma patients in Korea. J Korean Med Sci 2014; 29(7): 980-4.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2014.29.7.980] [PMID: 25045231]
[89]
Schankin CJ, Ferrari U, Reinisch VM, Birnbaum T, Goldbrunner R, Straube A. Characteristics of brain tumour-associated headache. Cephalalgia 2007; 27(8): 904-11.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2982.2007.01368.x] [PMID: 17635527]
[90]
Wick W, Menn O, Meisner C, et al. Pharmacotherapy of epileptic seizures in glioma patients: Who, when, why and how long? Onkologie 2005; 28(8-9): 391-6.
[91]
Lote K, Stenwig AE, Skullerud K, Hirschberg H. Prevalence and prognostic significance of epilepsy in patients with gliomas. Eur J Cancer 1998; 34(1): 98-102.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0959-8049(97)00374-2] [PMID: 9624245]
[92]
Klein M, Engelberts NH, van der Ploeg HM, et al. Epilepsy in low-grade gliomas: The impact on cognitive function and quality of life. Ann Neurol 2003; 54(4): 514-20.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ana.10712] [PMID: 14520665]
[93]
Moots PL, Maciunas RJ, Eisert DR, Parker RA, Laporte K, Abou-Khalil B. The course of seizure disorders in patients with malignant gliomas. Arch Neurol 1995; 52(7): 717-24.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archneur.1995.00540310091021] [PMID: 7619029]
[94]
Iuchi T, Hasegawa Y, Kawasaki K, Sakaida T. Epilepsy in patients with gliomas: Incidence and control of seizures. J Clin Neurosci 2015; 22(1): 87-91.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jocn.2014.05.036] [PMID: 25192590]
[95]
Talacchi A, Santini B, Savazzi S, Gerosa M. Cognitive effects of tumour and surgical treatment in glioma patients. J Neurooncol 2011; 103(3): 541-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11060-010-0417-0] [PMID: 20878206]
[96]
Weitzner MA, Meyers CA. Cognitive functioning and quality of life in malignant glioma patients: A review of the literature. Psychooncology 1997; 6(3): 169-77.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-1611(199709)6:3<169:AID-PON269>3.0.CO;2-#] [PMID: 9313282]
[97]
Boele FW, Rooney AG, Grant R, Klein M. Psychiatric symptoms in glioma patients: From diagnosis to management. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2015; 11: 1413-20.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S65874] [PMID: 26089669]
[98]
Díaz JL, Barreto P, Gallego JM, Barbero J, Bayés R, Barcia JA. Proper information during the surgical decision-making process lowers the anxiety of patients with high-grade gliomas. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2009; 151(4): 357-62.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00701-009-0195-7] [PMID: 19224120]
[99]
Squires RH Jr. Intracranial tumors. Vomiting as a presenting sign. A gastroenterologist’s perspective. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 1989; 28(8): 351-4.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/000992288902800803] [PMID: 2758717]
[100]
Giammalva GR, Iacopino DG, Azzarello G, et al. End-of-life care in high-grade glioma patients. The palliative and supportive perspective. Brain Sci 2018; 8(7): 125.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci8070125] [PMID: 29966347]
[101]
Silvani A, Eoli M, Salmaggi A, et al. Phase II trial of cisplatin plus temozolomide, in recurrent and progressive malignant glioma patients. J Neurooncol 2004; 66(1-2): 203-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:NEON.0000013479.64348.69] [PMID: 15015788]
[102]
Yung WK, Albright RE, Olson J, et al. A phase II study of temozolomide vs. procarbazine in patients with glioblastoma multiforme at first relapse. Br J Cancer 2000; 83(5): 588-93.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1054/bjoc.2000.1316] [PMID: 10944597]
[103]
Arcicasa M, Roncadin M, Bidoli E, Dedkov A, Gigante M, Trovò MG. Reirradiation and lomustine in patients with relapsed high- grade gliomas. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1999; 43(4): 789-93.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0360-3016(98)00457-X] [PMID: 10098434]
[104]
Walbert T, Chasteen K. Palliative and supportive care for glioma patients. Cancer Treat Res 2015; 163: 171-84.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-12048-5_11] [PMID: 25468232]
[105]
Oberndorfer S, Lindeck-Pozza E, Lahrmann H, Struhal W, Hitzenberger P, Grisold W. The end-of-life hospital setting in patients with glioblastoma. J Palliat Med 2008; 11(1): 26-30.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jpm.2007.0137] [PMID: 18370888]
[106]
Pace A, Metro G, Fabi A. Supportive care in neurooncology. Curr Opin Oncol 2010; 22(6): 621-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CCO.0b013e32833e078c] [PMID: 20706120]
[107]
McGranahan T, Therkelsen KE, Ahmad S, Nagpal S. Current state of immunotherapy for treatment of glioblastoma. Curr Treat Options Oncol 2019; 20(3): 24.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11864-019-0619-4] [PMID: 30790064]
[108]
Akiyama Y, Komiyama M, Miyata H, et al. Novel cancer-testis antigen expression on glioma cell lines derived from high-grade glioma patients. Oncol Rep 2014; 31(4): 1683-90.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/or.2014.3049] [PMID: 24573400]
[109]
Okada H, Kohanbash G, Zhu X, et al. Immunotherapeutic approaches for glioma. Crit Rev Immunol 2009; 29(1): 1-42.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/CritRevImmunol.v29.i1.10] [PMID: 19348609]
[110]
Silantyev AS, Falzone L, Libra M, et al. Current and future trends on diagnosis and prognosis of glioblastoma: From molecular biology to proteomics. Cells 2019; 8(8): 863.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells8080863] [PMID: 31405017]
[111]
Young RM, Jamshidi A, Davis G, Sherman JH. Current trends in the surgical management and treatment of adult glioblastoma. Ann Transl Med 2015; 3(9): 121.
[PMID: 26207249]
[112]
Mohammadi AM, Hawasli AH, Rodriguez A, et al. The role of laser interstitial thermal therapy in enhancing progression-free survival of difficult-to-access high-grade gliomas: A multicenter study. Cancer Med 2014; 3(4): 971-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.266] [PMID: 24810945]
[114]
Thomas JG, Rao G, Kew Y, Prabhu SS. Laser interstitial thermal therapy for newly diagnosed and recurrent glioblastoma. Neurosurg Focus 2016; 41(4): E12.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2016.7.FOCUS16234] [PMID: 27690657]
[115]
Stupp R, Taillibert S, Kanner A, et al. Effect of tumor-treating fields plus maintenance temozolomide vs. maintenance temozolomide alone on survival in patients with glioblastoma: A randomized clinical trial. JAMA 2017; 318(23): 2306-16.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2017.18718] [PMID: 29260225]
[116]
Kirson ED, Schneiderman RS, Dbalý V, et al. Chemotherapeutic treatment efficacy and sensitivity are increased by adjuvant alternating electric fields (TTFields). BMC Med Phys 2009; 9(1): 1.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1756-6649-9-1] [PMID: 19133110]
[117]
Davies AM, Weinberg U, Palti Y. Tumor treating fields: A new frontier in cancer therapy. Ann NY Acad Sci 2013; 1291(1): 86-95.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nyas.12112] [PMID: 23659608]
[118]
Henriksson Roger. Impact of therapy on quality of life, neurocognitive function and their correlates in glioblastoma multiforme: A review. Neuro-oncol 2011; 104(3): 639-46.
[119]
Jakola AS, Unsgård G, Solheim O. Quality of life in patients with intracranial gliomas: The impact of modern image-guided surgery. J Neurosurg 2011; 114(6): 1622-30.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2011.1.JNS101657] [PMID: 21314270]
[120]
Reijneveld JC, Sitskoorn MM, Klein M, Nuyen J, Taphoorn MJ. Cognitive status and quality of life in patients with suspected versus proven low-grade gliomas. Neurology 56(5): 618-23.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.56.5.618]
[121]
Dirven L, Aaronson NK, Heimans JJ, Taphoorn MJ. Health-related quality of life in high-grade glioma patients. Chin J Cancer 2014; 33(1): 40-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.5732/cjc.013.10214] [PMID: 24384239]
[122]
Brown PD, Ballman KV, Rummans TA, et al. Prospective study of quality of life in adults with newly diagnosed high-grade gliomas. J Neurooncol 2006; 76(3): 283-91.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11060-005-7020-9] [PMID: 16163448]


Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

VOLUME: 17
ISSUE: 1
Year: 2021
Published on: 21 July, 2020
Page: [35 - 48]
Pages: 14
DOI: 10.2174/1573394716666200721155514
Price: $65

Article Metrics

PDF: 25
HTML: 1