Background: Pollen and propolis are two bee products with highly health promoting
properties. But there are some limitations of raw propolis usage not only in daily consumption but
also in putting it in food formulations. Propolis should be extracted to convert it into consumable
form and ethanol is the first choice as a solvent. But ethanol consumption, either in health-wise or
religious aspect, is one of the factors limiting the usage of propolis extract. The strong taste and
strong smell of propolis are other factors. The immobilization of propolis active compounds could
be a tool for overcoming either all or some of these factors.
Objective: This study was aimed at the immobilization of propolis active constituents on the
surface of whole pollen grains.
Methods: Chemical composition of raw propolis was determined by using GC-MS technique. Total
phenolic content and antioxidant activity of the samples were measured spectrophotometrically. The
release property of the beads was determined.
Results: Immobilization efficiency was 53%. Total phenolic and flavonoid content of pollen,
propolis and pollen-propolis beads were measured. It was determined that pollen-propolis beads
contain more phenolics than pollen and propolis itself. Ferric reducing activity of the samples was
also investigated and pollen-propolis beads showed better activity. Release behavior of pollen and
pollen-propolis beads was studied in simulated digestive systems. Better release properties of
pollen-propolis beads were achieved in all tested systems as well. These findings support the
immobilization of propolis active compounds on the surface of whole pollen grains.
Conclusion: It could be concluded that the product obtained, pollen-propolis beads, could be
considered as a more valuable healthy product since the synergistic action of pollen and propolis.