Functional Food with Some Health Benefits, So Called Superfood: A Review

Author(s): Ena Gupta, Pragya Mishra*

Journal Name: Current Nutrition & Food Science

Volume 17 , Issue 2 , 2021


Become EABM
Become Reviewer
Call for Editor

Graphical Abstract:


Abstract:

The possible beneficial properties of functional foods are due to their content in bioactive ingredients, with specific biological properties. A number of processed functional foods are available in the market - probiotic yogurt, calcium and ω-3 fatty acids enriched orange juice and milk. Simultaneously, new research studies confer potential health benefits of various conventional foods (salmon, berries, green tea, vegetables, fruits, nuts, cereals and breads, etc.) termed as “superfood” which is a marketing term and there is no established medical definition. Following suitable dietary patterns, superfood reduces the risk of degenerative diseases by promoting physical and emotional health. Scientific evidences suggest that superfoods are a dense source of antioxidants, minerals, vitamins and other nutrients. There is insufficient research on the exact explanation of the term ‘superfood’and its health claims by different companies without any legislation. This buzz word has created confusion among consumers, that how much and what quantity should make a food superfood, as no single food may be as nutritious to be stated as a superfood. This article introduces further investigation on superfood which was categorized on the basis of their major constituents and potential health benefits. Further, there is a need for more reviews, researches, clinical trials and human case studies to investigate or test superfood.

Keywords: Dietary intake, functional food, health benefits, health claims, Super power, superfood.

[1]
Daugherty B. Superfood: The healthiest foods on the Planet (New Resources for Nutrition Educators). J Nutr Educ Behav 2011; 43(3): 141-208.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneb.2011.03.008] [PMID: 21550530]
[2]
Llorent-Martínez EJ, Fernández-de Córdova ML, Ortega-Barrales P, et al. Characterization and comparison of the chemical composition of exotic superfood. Microchem J 2013; 110: 444-51.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.microc.2013.05.016]
[3]
Proestos C. Superfood: Recent data on their role in the prevention of diseases. Curr Res Nutr Food Sci 2018; 6(3): 576-93.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.12944/CRNFSJ.6.3.02]
[4]
van den Driessche JJ, Plat J, Mensink RP. Effects of superfoods on risk factors of metabolic syndrome: a systematic review of human intervention trials. Food Funct 2018; 9(4): 1944-66.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/C7FO01792H] [PMID: 29557436]
[5]
European Commission (EC) 2000/500/EC: Commission Decision of 24 July 2000 on authorising the placing on the market of 'yellow fat spreads with added phytosterol esters' as a novel food or novel food ingredient under Regulation (EC) No 258/97 of the European Parliament and of the Council 2000. Available from: https://op.europa.eu/en/publication-detail/-/publication/86992c55-d876-4d28-b936-1882f907cb2f/language-en
[6]
MacGregor C, Petersen A, Parker C. Promoting a healthier, younger you: The media marketing of anti-ageing superfood. J Consum Cult 2018; 0(0): 1-16.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1469540518773825]
[7]
European commission (EC) Regulation No (EC) 258/97 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 January 1997 concerning novel foods and novel food ingredients - consolidated version of 782009 2009. Available from: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=celex%3A31997R0258
[8]
Hyson DA. A comprehensive review of apples and apple components and their relationship to human health. Adv Nutr 2011; 2(5): 408-20.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/an.111.000513] [PMID: 22332082]
[9]
Markowski J, Plocharski W. Determination of phenolic compounds in apples and processed apple products. J Fruit Ornam Plant Res 2006; 14(2): 133-42.
[10]
Yasir M, Das S, Kharya MD. The phytochemical and pharmacological profile of Persea americana Mill. Pharmacogn Rev 2010; 4(7): 77-84.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0973-7847.65332] [PMID: 22228945]
[11]
Machado DE, Rodrigues-Baptista KC, Alessandra-Perini J, et al. Euterpe oleracea extract (Açaí) is a promising novel pharmacological therapeutic treatment for experimental endometriosis. PLoS One 2016; 11(11)e0166059
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0166059] [PMID: 27851787]
[12]
Kang J, Li Z, Wu T, et al. Anti-oxidant capacities of flavonoid compounds isolated from acai pulp (Euterpe oleracea Mart.). Food Chem 2010; 122: 610-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.03.020]
[13]
Spácil Z, Nováková L, Solich P. Analysis of phenolic compounds by high performance liquid chromatography and ultra performance liquid chromatography. Talanta 2008; 76(1): 189-99.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2008.02.021] [PMID: 18585262]
[14]
Xia EQ, Deng GF, Guo YJ, et al. Biological activities of polyphenols from grapes. Int J Mol Sci 2010; 11(2): 622-46.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms11020622] [PMID: 20386657]
[15]
Singh B, Singh JP, Kaur A, et al. Bioactive compounds in banana and their associated health benefits-A review. Food Chem 2016; 206: 1-11.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.03.033] [PMID: 27041291]
[16]
Imam MZ, Akter S. Musa paradisiaca L. and Musa sapientum L.: A phytochemical and pharmacological review. J Appl Pharm Sci 2011; 1(5): 14-20.
[17]
Nishiyama I. Fruits of the Actinidia genus. Adv Food Nutr Res 2007; 52: 293-324.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1043-4526(06)52006-6] [PMID: 17425948]
[18]
Pal RS, Kumar VA, Arora S, et al. Physicochemical and antioxidant properties of kiwifruit as a function of cultivar and fruit harvested month. Braz Arch Biol Technol 2015; 58(2): 262-71.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s1516-8913201500371]
[19]
Yu J, Bi X, Yu B, et al. Isoflavones: anti-inflammatory benefit and possible caveats. Nutrients 2016; 8(6): 361.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu8060361] [PMID: 27294954]
[20]
Tang L, Paonessa JD, Zhang Y, et al. Total isothiocyanate yield from raw cruciferous vegetables commonly consumed in the United States. J Funct Foods 2013; 5(4): 1996-2001.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jff.2013.07.011] [PMID: 24443655]
[21]
Airesa A, Carvalho R, Rosa EAS, et al. Phytochemical characterization and antioxidant properties of baby-leaf watercress produced under organic production system. CYTA J Food 2013; 11(4): 343-51.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19476337.2013.769025]
[22]
Chen CY, Lapsley K, Blumberg J. A nutrition and health perspective on almonds. J Sci Food Agric 2006; 86: 2245-50.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2659]
[23]
Kamil A, Chen CYO. Health benefits of almonds beyond cholesterol reduction. J Agric Food Chem 2012; 60(27): 6694-702.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf2044795] [PMID: 22296169]
[24]
Hayes D, Angove MJ, Tucci J, et al. Walnuts (Juglans regia) chemical composition and research in human health. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2016; 56(8): 1231-41.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2012.760516] [PMID: 25747270]
[25]
Wang H, Wang J, Qiu C, et al. Comparison of phytochemical profiles and health benefits in fiber and oil flaxseeds (Linum usitatissimum L.). Food Chem 2017; 214(214): 227-33.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.07.075] [PMID: 27507470]
[26]
Tang Y, Tsao R. Total isothiocyanate yield from raw cruciferous vegetables commonly consumed in the United States. J Funct Foods 2017; 5(4): 1996-2001.
[27]
Zhu Y, Sang S. Phytochemicals in whole grain wheat and their health-promoting effects. Mol Nutr Food Res 2017; 61(7)
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.201600852] [PMID: 28155258]
[28]
Idehen E, Tang Y, Sang S. Bioactive phytochemicals in barley. Food Drug Anal 2017; 25(1): 148-61.
[http://dx.doi.org/dx.doi: 10.1016/j.jfda.2016.08.002] [PMID: 28911532]
[29]
Shrishail D, Handral HK, Ravichandra H, et al. Turmeric: nature’s precious medicine. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2013; 6(3): 10-6.
[30]
Gupta AD, Rajpurohit D. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans). In: Preedy, VR, Watson, RR, Patel, VB, Eds. Nuts and seeds in health and disease prevention. 1st Ed. Amsterdam: Elsevier Academic Press 2011; pp. 831-9.
[31]
Zhang L, Lokeshwar BL. Medicinal properties of the Jamaican pepper plant Pimenta dioica and Allspice. Curr Drug Targets 2012; 13(14): 1900-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/138945012804545641] [PMID: 23140298]
[32]
Habtemariam S. The therapeutic potential of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) diterpenes for Alzheimer’s disease. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2016; 20162680409
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/2680409] [PMID: 26941822]
[33]
Boyer J, Liu RH. Apple phytochemicals and their health benefits. Nutr J 2004; 3: 5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2891-3-5] [PMID: 15140261]
[34]
Schauss AG, Wu X, Prior RL, et al. Phytochemical and nutrient composition of the freeze-dried amazonian palm berry, Euterpe oleraceae mart. (acai). J Agric Food Chem 2006; 54(22): 8598-603.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf060976g] [PMID: 17061839]
[35]
Kim MJ, Uhl K. Sex and lifestyle drugs: the pursuit of the fountain of youth. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2011; 89(1): 3-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/clpt.2010.263] [PMID: 21170060]
[36]
Cassidy A, Mukamal KJ, Liu L, et al. High anthocyanin intake is associated with a reduced risk of myocardial infarction in young and middle-aged women. Circulation 2013; 127(2): 188-96.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.112.122408] [PMID: 23319811]
[37]
Collins BH, Horská A, Hotten PM, et al. Kiwifruit protects against oxidative DNA damage in human cells and in vitro. Nutr Cancer 2001; 39(1): 148-53.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/S15327914nc391_20] [PMID: 11588897]
[38]
Pezzuto JM. Grapes and human health: a perspective. J Agric Food Chem 2008; 56(16): 6777-84.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf800898p] [PMID: 18662007]
[39]
Zhao Y, Tan DX, Lei Q, et al. Melatonin and its potential biological functions in the fruits of sweet cherry. J Pineal Res 2013; 55(1): 79-88.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jpi.12044] [PMID: 23480341]
[40]
Kumar KPS, Bhowmik D, Duraivel S, et al. Traditional and medicinal uses of banana. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 2012; 1(3): 51-63.
[41]
Czech A, Zarycka E, Yanovych D, et al. Mineral content of the pulp and peel of various citrus fruit cultivars. Biol Trace Elem Res 2020; 193(2): 555-63.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-019-01727-1] [PMID: 31030384]
[42]
USDA database table for raw cabbage per 100 g. US Department of Agriculture, National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, version SR-27. 2014. Retrieved 4 December 2014.
[43]
Tse G, Eslick GD. Cruciferous vegetables and risk of colorectal neoplasms: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutr Cancer 2014; 66(1): 128-39.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01635581.2014.852686] [PMID: 24341734]
[44]
Yang DK. Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) protects against H2O2-induced oxidative stress by preventing mitochondrial dysfunction in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2018; 20182179021
[45]
Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, Statistics Division (FAOSTAT) In: Production/Crops. Quantities by Country for Cauliflowers and Broccoli for 2014.
[46]
Clarke JD, Dashwood RH, Ho E. Multi-targeted prevention of cancer by sulforaphane. Cancer Lett 2008; 269(2): 291-304.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2008.04.018] [PMID: 18504070]
[47]
Geng F, Tang L, Li Y, et al. Allyl isothiocyanate arrests cancer cells in mitosis, and mitotic arrest in turn leads to apoptosis via Bcl-2 protein phosphorylation. J Biol Chem 2011; 286(37): 32259-67.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M111.278127] [PMID: 21778226]
[48]
Rahman KM, Li Y, Sarkar FH. Inactivation of akt and NF-kappaB play important roles during indole-3-carbinol-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells. Nutr Cancer 2004; 48(1): 84-94.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327914nc4801_12] [PMID: 15203382]
[49]
United Nation Food and Agriculture Organization (UNFAO). Crops/Regions/World list for production quantity of Spinach in 2014.
[50]
El-Sayed SM. Use of spinach powder as functional ingredient in the manufacture of UF-Soft cheese. Heliyon 2020; 6(1)e03278
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e03278] [PMID: 31993529]
[51]
Farnham MW, Lester GE, Hassell R. Collard, mustard and turnip greens: Effects of genotypes and leaf position on concentrations of ascorbic acid, folate, β-carotene, lutein and phylloquinone. J Food Compos Anal 2012; 27(1): 1-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2012.04.008]
[52]
Šamec D, Urlić B, Salopek-Sondi B. Kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) as a superfood: Review of the scientific evidence behind the statement. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2019; 59(15): 2411-22.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2018.1454400] [PMID: 29557674]
[53]
Kim MJ, Chiu Y, Ku K. Thyme: history, applications, and overview of potential health benefits. Nutr Today 2017; 51(1): 40-9.
[54]
Chaudhary S, Hisham H, Mohamed D. A review on phytochemical and pharmacological potential of watercress plant. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2018; 11(12): 102-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.22159/ajpcr.2018.v11i12.29422]
[55]
Que F, Hou XL, Wang GL, et al. Advances in research on the carrot, an important root vegetable in the Apiaceae family. Hortic Res 2019; 6(69): 69.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41438-019-0150-6] [PMID: 31231527]
[56]
Moeller SM, Parekh N, Tinker L, et al. CAREDS Research Study Group Associations between intermediate age-related macular degeneration and lutein and zeaxanthin in the Carotenoids in Age-related Eye Disease Study (CAREDS): ancillary study of the Women’s Health Initiative. Arch Ophthalmol 2006; 124(8): 1151-62.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archopht.124.8.1151] [PMID: 16908818]
[57]
Kwak SS. Biotechnology of the sweetpotato: ensuring global food and nutrition security in the face of climate change. Plant Cell Rep 2019; 38(11): 1361-3.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00299-019-02468-0] [PMID: 31494727]
[58]
Nutrition Action Health Letter: 10 Worst and Best Foods. Center for Science in the Public Interest. (2013). Archived from the original on 4 January 2014. Available from https://cspinet.org/nutrition-action-healthletter.
[59]
Djanta MKA. Vegetable soybean, edamame: Research, production, utilization and analysis of its adoption in Sub-Saharan Africa. J Hortic For 2020; 12(1): 1-12.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JHF2019.0604]
[60]
Shang A, Cao SY, Xu XY, et al. Bioactive compounds and biological functions of garlic (Allium sativum L.). Foods 2019; 8(7): 246.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods8070246] [PMID: 31284512]
[61]
Raghu R, Lu KH, Sheen LY. Recent research progress on garlic as a potential anticarcinogenic agent against major digestive cancers. J Tradit Complement Med 2012; 2(3): 192-201.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2225-4110(16)30099-2] [PMID: 24716132]
[62]
Bhandari SR, Jo JS, Lee JG. Comparison of glucosinolate profiles in different tissues of nine Brassica crops. Molecules 2015; 20(9): 15827-41.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules200915827] [PMID: 26334264]
[63]
Berryman CE, West SG, Fleming JA, et al. Effects of daily almond consumption on cardiometabolic risk and abdominal adiposity in healthy adults with elevated LDL-cholesterol: a randomized controlled trial. J Am Heart Assoc 2015; 4(1): e000993-3.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.114.000993] [PMID: 25559009]
[64]
Josse AR, Kendall CW, Augustin LS, et al. Almonds and postprandial glycemia-a dose-response study. Metabolism 2007; 56(3): 400-4.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.metabol.2006.10.024] [PMID: 17292730]
[65]
Wallace TC. Dried plums, prunes and bone health: a comprehensive review. Nutrients 2017; 9(4): 401.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu9040401] [PMID: 28422064]
[66]
Omar SH. Oleuropein in olive and its pharmacological effects. Sci Pharm 2010; 78(2): 133-54.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.0912-18] [PMID: 21179340]
[67]
Levers K, Dalton R, Galvan E, et al. Effects of powdered Montmorency tart cherry supplementation on acute endurance exercise performance in aerobically trained individuals. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2016; 13: 22.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12970-016-0133-z] [PMID: 27231439]
[68]
Anjum FM, Nadeem M, Khan MI, et al. Nutritional and therapeutic potential of sunflower seeds: a review. Br Food J 2012; 114(4): 544-52.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/00070701211219559]
[69]
Kaur P, Waghmare R, Kumar V, et al. 2018 Anti-oxidant capacities of 〉avonoid compounds isolated from acai pulp (Euterpe oleracea Mart.). Food Chem 122: 610-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/ocl/2018018]
[70]
Lin L, Allemekinders H, Dansby A, et al. Evidence of health benefits of canola oil. Nutr Rev 2013; 71(6): 370-85.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nure.12033] [PMID: 23731447]
[71]
Kulczyński B, Kobus-Cisowska J, Taczanowski M, et al. The chemical composition and nutritional value of chia seeds-current state of knowledge. Nutrients 2019; 11(6): 1242.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu11061242] [PMID: 31159190]
[72]
Navruz-Varli S, Sanlier N. Nutritional and health benefits of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.). J Cereal Sci 2016; 69: 371-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2016.05.004]
[73]
Mantila UH. Composition and structure of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grain in relation to end uses. Academic dissertation 2015, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland 2015.
[74]
Imam MU, Musa SNA, Azmi NH, et al. Effects of white rice, brown rice and germinated brown rice on antioxidant status of type 2 diabetic rats. Int J Mol Sci 2012; 13(10): 12952-69.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms131012952] [PMID: 23202932]
[75]
Mahmoud AA, Mohdaly AAA, Elneairy NAA. Wheat germ: an overview on nutritional value, antioxidant potential and antibacterial characteristics. Food Nutr Sci 2015; 6: 265-77.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/fns.2015.62027]
[76]
Durre S, Bhat TM, Ansari MYK, et al. Health functional compounds of lentil (Lens culinaris Medik): A review. Int J Food Prop 2017.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10942912.2017.1287192]
[77]
Reverri EJ, Randolph JM, Steinberg FM, et al. Black beans, fiber, and antioxidant capacity pilot study: examination of whole foods vs. functional components on postprandial metabolic, oxidative stress, and inflammation in adults with metabolic syndrome. Nutrients 2015; 7(8): 6139-54.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu7085273] [PMID: 26225995]
[78]
Hewlings SJ, Kalman DS. Curcumin: a review of its’ effects on human health. Foods 2017; 6(10): 92.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods6100092] [PMID: 29065496]
[79]
Abdallah ME, Abdalla EW. Black pepper fruit (Piper nigrum L.) as antibacterial agent: a mini-review. J Bacteriol Mycol 2018; 6(2): 141-5.
[80]
Rao PV, Gan SH. Cinnamon: a multifaceted medicinal plant. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2014; 2014642942
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/642942] [PMID: 24817901]
[81]
Singletary KW. Basil: a brief summary of potential health benefits. Nutr Today 2018; 53(2): 92-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/NT.0000000000000267]
[82]
Keith S. Thyme: history, applications, and overview of potential health benefits. Nutr Today 2016; 51(1): 40-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/NT.0000000000000139]
[83]
Gottlieb M. Goat’s Milk-The New Superfood for Dogs and Cats. 2015. Available from
[http://dx.doi.org/www.goodpet.com.]
[84]
Kompare J. Leaky gut syndrome in horses Master’s Thesis, Department of Animal Science, Michigan State University Michigan, USA, 2013.
[85]
Ward E. The Fab Five: Five Superfood to Feed Your Pet. 2016. Available from
[http://dx.doi.org/www.gopetplan.com.]
[86]
Onyenweaku EO, Ene-Obong HN, Williams IO, et al. Comparison of nutritional composition of bird egg varieties found in Southern Nigeria: a preliminary study. Food Nutr Sci 2018; 9: 868-79.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/fns.2018.97065]
[87]
Lajous M, Willett WC, Robins J, et al. Changes in fish consumption in midlife and the risk of coronary heart disease in men and women. Am J Epidemiol 2013; 178(3): 382-91.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kws478] [PMID: 23813701]
[88]
Wu R, Chen L, Liu D, et al. Preparation of antioxidant peptides from salmon byproducts with bacterial extracellular proteases. Mar Drugs 2017; 15(1): 4.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/md15010004] [PMID: 28085023]
[89]
Igenbayev A, Okuskhanova E, Nurgazezova A, et al. Fatty acid composition of female turkey muscles in Kazakhstan. J World Poult Res 2019; 9(2): 78-81.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.36380/jwpr.2019.9]
[91]
Mishra P, Prasad SM, Yadav N. Development of synbiotic weaning food supplemented with Spirulina grown under precise/mild stress conditions. Food Feed Res 2017; 44(2): 101-13.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.5937/FFR1702101M]
[92]
Mazon S, Menin D, Cella BM, et al. Exploring consumers’ knowledge and perceptions of unconventional food plants: case study of addition of Pereskia aculeata Miller to ice cream. Food Sci Technol (Campinas) 2020; 40(1): 215-21.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/fst.39218]
[93]
IFIC. (International food information council) Functional Foods Now. 1999. International Food and Information Council 1999. Washington, DC. Available from: http://ific.org/research/funcfoods res02.cfm
[94]
Herman C, Adlecreutz T, Goldin BR, et al. Soybean and phytoestrogen intake and cancer risk. Nutrition 1995; 125: 757S-70S.
[95]
Bellows L, Moore R. Dietary Supplements: Herbals and Botanicals Fact Sheet No. 9.370 Food and Nutrition Series, Health 2013. Available from: https://extension.colostate.edu/topic-areas/nutri tion-food-safety-health/dietary-supplements-herbals-and-botanicals-9-370/
[96]
Brown R, Wright A. 2017 Beauty food: the next big thing in functional? The Grocer 37-43. Available form: https://www.thegrocer. co.uk/download?ac=117514
[97]
European Commission (EC) 2003/1829/EC: Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council. 2003. Available from: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/ALL/? uri=CELEX%3A32003R1829
[98]
European commission (EC) Regulation No (EC) 258/97 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 January 1997 concerning novel foods and novel food ingredients - consolidated version of 782009 2009. Available from: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/? uri=celex%3A31997R0258


Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

VOLUME: 17
ISSUE: 2
Year: 2021
Published on: 17 July, 2020
Page: [144 - 166]
Pages: 23
DOI: 10.2174/1573401316999200717171048
Price: $65

Article Metrics

PDF: 27