Pathophysiological Effects of Sulfur Mustard on Skin and its Current Treatments: Possible Application of Phytochemicals

Author(s): Mehdi Hassanpour, Fateme Hajihassani, Mina Abdollahpourasl, Omid Cheraghi, Nasser Aghamohamadzade, Reza Rahbargazi, Mohammad Nouri, Younes Pilehvar-Soltanahmadi, Nosratollah Zarghami, Abolfazl Akbarzadeh, Yunes Panahi*, Amirhossein Sahebkar*

Journal Name: Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening
Accelerated Technologies for Biotechnology, Bioassays, Medicinal Chemistry and Natural Products Research

Volume 24 , Issue 1 , 2021

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Abstract:

Background: Sulfur-(SM) and nitrogen (NM)-based mustards are the mutagenic incapacitating compounds which are widely used in vesicating the chemical warfare and cause toxicity in many organs, especially skin. SM, as a potent vesicating agent, contributes to the destruction of skin in dermis and epidermis layers. The progression of the lesion depends on the concentration of SM and the duration of exposure. Body responses start with pruritus, erythema, edema and xerosis, which lead to the accumulation of immune cells in the target sites and recruitment of mast cells and paracrine-mediated activity. Pro-inflammatory effectors are accumulated in the epidermis, hair follicles, and sebaceous glands resulting in the destruction of the basement membrane beneath the epidermis. There is still no satisfactory countermeasure against SM-induced lesions in clinical therapy, and the symptomatic or supportive treatments are routine management approaches.

Objective: The current review highlights the recent progression of herbal medicines application in SM-induced injuries through the illustrative examples and also demonstrates their efficacies, properties and mechanism of actions as therapeutic agents.

Conclusion: Phytochemicals and herbal extracts with anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties have been recently shown to hold therapeutic promise against the SM-induced cutaneous complications. The present review discusses the possible application of herbal medicines in the healing of SM-induced injuries.

Keywords: Sulfur mustard, skin injury, wound healing, phytochemical therapy, SM-induced injuries, herbal medicines.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 24
ISSUE: 1
Year: 2021
Published on: 13 January, 2021
Page: [3 - 19]
Pages: 17
DOI: 10.2174/1386207323666200717150414
Price: $65

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