Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus, and it is one
of the family members of Picornaviridae. Except for EV-D68, the entire family Picornaviridae has
been illustrated in literature. EV-D68 was first discovered and isolated in California, USA, in 1962.
EV-D68 has resulted in respiratory disorders’ outbreaks among children worldwide, and it has
been detected in cases of various neurological diseases such as acute flaccid myelitis (AFM). A recent
study documented a higher number of EV-D68 cases associated with AFM in Europe in 2016
compared to the 2014 outbreak. EV-D68 is mainly diagnosed by quantitative PCR, and there is an
affirmative strategy for EV-D68 detection by using pan-EV PCR on the untranslated region and/or
the VP1 or VP2, followed by sequencing of the PCR products. Serological tests are limited due to
cross-reactivity of the antigens between the different serotypes. Many antiviral drugs for EV-D68
have been evaluated and showed promising results. In our review, we discuss the current knowledge
about EV-D68 and its role in the development of AFM.