Background: Recent pandemic of coronavirus disease caused by a novel coronavirus
SARS-CoV-2 in humans is the third outbreak by this family of viruses leading to an acute
respiratory infection, which has been a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide.The
virus belongs to the genus, Betacoronavirus, which has been recently reported to have significant
similarity (>89%) to a severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-related member of
the Sarbecoviruses. Current researches are not sufficient to understand the etiological and
immunopathobiological parameters related to COVID-19 so as to have a therapeutic solution
to the problem.
Methods: A structured search of bibliographic databases for peer-reviewed research literature
has been carried out using focused review questions and inclusion/exclusion criteria. Further
Standard tools were implied in order to appraise the quality of retrieved papers. The characteristic
outcomes of screened research and review articles along with analysis of the interventions
and findings of included studies using a conceptual framework have been described employing
a deductive qualitative content analysis methodology.
Results: This review systematically summarizes the immune-pathobiological characteristics,
diagnosis, potential therapeutic options for the treatment and prevention of COVID-19 based
on the current published literature and evidence. The current review has covered 125 peerreviewed
articles, the majority of which are from high-income technically developed countries
providing the most recent updates about the current understanding of the COVID-19
bringing all the significant findings and related researches together at a single platform. In addition,
possible therapeutic interventions, treatment strategies and vaccine development initiatives
to manage COVID-19 have been proposed.
Conclusion: It is anticipated that this review would certainly assist the public in general and
scientific community in particular to recognize and effectively deal with COVID-19, providing
a reference guide for futuristic studies.