Background: COVID-19 is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2. The disease has
hit hard around the globe and is now a pandemic. As of April 01, 2020, a total of 875,560 cases have
been reported and the figures are increasing day by day. Currently, there is no treatment or vaccine
available for curing COVID-19 and pharmaceutical companies are racing toward the common goal of
achieving the cure.
Methods: Scientific databases, including Science direct, Pub med, Elsevier, Scopus, and Nature, were
explored. Data has also been accessed from case reports, newspaper reports, internet data, World Health
Organisation (WHO) reports, and Centre of Disease Control (CDCs) reports. The US National Library
of Medicine, Clinicaltrials.gov, were accessed to get information about the ongoing clinical trials. The
literature survey started in the first week of February 2020 and was completed in the first week of April
2020. Additional literature survey was done in the second week of June 2020.
Results: The epicentre of COVID-19 is Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China. Coronavirus belongs to
Order Nidovirale and is subdivided into four groups alpha, beta, gamma, and delta. Coronavirus 229E,
NL63, HKU1, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV are known to infect humans. It is an enveloped, nonsegmented
positive-sense RNA virus of size 30-32 kb with several structural and accessory proteins.
The pathogenesis of COVID-19 involves attachment of Spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2 to the angiotensin-
converting enzyme 2(ACE2) receptor present on the host cell membrane. Clinical manifestation
of COVID-19 include fever, cough, complicated dyspnoea, pneumonia, etc. Real-time -PCR is a sensitive
test for the detection of SARS-CoV. Remdesivir, Bevacizumab, Darunavir and cobicistat, lopinavirritonavir,
Oseltamavir, hydroxychloroquine, Sarilumab, mRNA -1273, Ad5-nCoV are some of the drugs
under the clinical phase of the trial. People with A-positive blood group, with comorbidities like diabetes,
hypertension, chronic pulmonary obstructive disease, substance abuse disorders, immunocompromised
individuals, health care workers, and older adults are at high risk of getting infected with
Conclusion: This article gives insight into the occurrence of COVID-19, classification and structure of
SARS-CoV-2, pathogenesis, pathological findings, clinical manifestation, diagnosis, potential treatment
options and prevention, and people at risk of COVID-19.