Pathogenesis, Clinical Manifestation, Diagnosis, Pathological Findings, Treatment Options, Preventive Measures, and Risk Factors of Covid-19

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Author(s): Mohammad Asif, Anshuman Patel, May Bin-Jumah, Sadaf Jamal Gilani, Iqra Rahat, Mohamad Taleuzzaman, Neha Gandhi, Syed Sarim Imam, Chandra Kala*

Journal Name: Coronaviruses

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Abstract:

Background: COVID-19 an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2. The disease has hit hard around the globe and is now a pandemic. As of April 01, 2020, a total of 875,560 has been registered and the figures are increasing day by day. Currently, there is no treatment or vaccine is available for curing COVID-19 and pharmaceutical companies are racing toward the common goal of achieving the cure.

Methods: Scientific databases including Science direct, Pub med, Elsevier, Scopus, and Nature were explored. Data has also been accessed from case reports, newspaper reports, internet data, World Health Organisation (WHO) reports and Centre of Disease Control (CDCs) reports. US National Library of Medicine, Clinicaltrials.gov, has been accessed to get information about ongoing clinical trials. The literature survey started in the first week of February, 2020 and was completed in first week of April, 2020. Additional literature survey was done in second week of June, 2020.

Results: The epicentre of COVID-19 is WuhanCity, Hubei Province, China. Coronavirus belongs to Order Nidovirale and subdivided into four groups alpha, beta , gamma and delta. Coronavirus 229E, NL63, HKU1, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV are known to infect humans. It is an enveloped, non-segmented positive-sense RNA virus of size 30-32 kb with several structural and accessory proteins. The pathogenesis of COVID-19 involves attachment of Spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2 to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2(ACE2) receptor present on the host cell membrane. Clinical manifestation of COVID-19 includes fever, cough, complicated dyspnoea, pneumonia, etc. Real-time - PCR is a sensitive test for the detection of SARS-CoV. Remdesivir, Bevacizumab, Darunavir and cobicistat, lopinavir-ritonavir, Oseltamavir, hydroxychloroquine, Sarilumab, mRNA -1273, Ad5-nCoV are some of the drugs under the clinical phase of the trial. People with Apositive blood group, comorbidities like diabetes, hypertension, chronic pulmonary obstructive disease, substance abuse disorders, immunocompromised individuals, health care workers, and older adults are at high risk of getting infected with SARS-CoV-2.

Conclusion:The article give insight about the occurrence of COVID-19, classification and structure of SARS-CoV-2, pathogenesis, pathological findings, clinical manifestation, diagnosis, potential treatment options and prevention, people at risk of COVID-19.

Keywords: COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, pathogenesis, pathological findings, diagnosis, treatment, vaccines.

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(E-pub Ahead of Print)
DOI: 10.2174/2666796701999200709174240
Price: $95

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