Background: Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality
in developed countries. Numerous groups have explored single and multiple biomarker strategies
to identify diagnostic prognosticators of ACS, which will improve our ability to identify high-risk individuals.
Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP-9) is one potential biomarker, which has been widely studied
in ACS. Recent reports have showed the prognostic utility of MMP-9, but due to inconsistent results,
it has not been possible to draw firm conclusions.
Objective: This review aims to explore the ability of MMP-9 to predict the long-term prognosis of
ACS. To clarify this issue, we conducted a literature review to provide a comprehensive assessment of
MMP-9 levels in ACS patients.
Methods: We retrieved a total of 1501 articles from PubMed and Google Scholar. After thorough scrutiny,
12 original research articles were found fulfilling the inclusion-exclusion criteria. MMP-9’s ability
as a biomarker of prognostication post ACS was reviewed. PRISMA guidelines were used for reporting.
Results: The results revealed that MMP-9, apart from being an efficient diagnostic biomarker for ACS,
helps in predicting the future risk of ACS with disease outcome. A positive correlation was found between
plasma MMP-9 and left ventricular remodeling. A positive association was also found between
cardiovascular death and higher MMP-9 levels.
Conclusion: MMP-9 can be a potential prognostic marker for ACS and aids in identifying high-risk
patients for intensive management during follow -up.